This is all relatively new and I’m learning like everyone else. But here is a quick summary of my limited understanding.
In the past vaccines were either a dead virus or a similar virus that had limited effect on humans. These were injected into the body where our immune system attacked them and destroyed infected cells.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that are immune cells that attack the virus. B lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. T cell lymphocytes are made in the thymus.
The dead virus particles, called antigens are pathogens that are attacked by the lymphocytes to cleanse the body. T cells, also called T helper cells, produce cytokines that direct the immune response. (Many of the deaths are blamed on a “Cytokine Storm,” a great immune system response that was creating the lung congestion leading to respiration stoppage.)
The B lymphocytes are memory cells that create the long term immunity as they hang around and as soon as similar antigens are identified, it triggers a fast immune response. The purpose of the vaccine is to produce these B memory lymphocytes for rapid immune response, protecting against the virus from rapid replication in the future.
The new “vaccine” does not use dead or weakened virus to trigger the immune system. It uses genetically engineered antigens which replicate genetic fingerprints of the dead virus particles.
The concern is that when you genetically engineer a virus particle that triggers an immune response, what are the end results. It is a key that unlocks the immune system. What other tissue or cells in the body will be attacked when the genetically engineered antigens (the new vaccines) acts as a key to create immune response.
We have already heard several cases where the vaccine potentially triggerd an autoimmune response that destroyed platelets in the blood, thus decreasing its ability to clot. This is wat killed the Dr. in Orlando and is blamed for killing several fetuses in pregnant women receiving the new vaccine.
Could it trigger something similar to MS, or Lupus, or Vasculitis, or Myocarditis, or ALS,...... in the future? No one knows.
One concern I have is that when you start genetically engineering antigens, could these be race or gender, or ethnic origin specific? Could you develop an antigen that triggers an immune response causing sterilization or infertility?
There are more unanswered questions than there are answers at this time.
The PCR tests are used to directly detect the presence of an antigen, the genetic information of the virus or RNA sequence rather than the presence of the body’s immune response, or antibodies. Thus some people who had the vaccine are testing perpetually positive for the virus.
I personally am waiting for the J&J vaccine that is dead virus cells, even though it is possibly not as effective. My only reason for getting it is I expect it to be a requirement for international travel in the future and I travel frequently.
If there are important parts missing to my explanation or if my understanding is incorrect, please feel free to make necessary additions/corrections. This is a very simplified explanation.
Its not a bad high level look, but the point that needs more refining is that the mRNA does not create genetically engineered antigens. Corona Virus is an RNA virus (SS RNA to be precise, there are some really weird DS RNA but thats another story). Once the virus sheds its capsule after gaining entry into the cell (with CoVID it is the spike protein that allows penetration of the cell membrane which is a lipid bilayer) it exposes its RNA to the ribosomes and starts to translate its protein. because the RNA is the entire virus, it replicates proteins for more whole virus.
So the current vaccine has the mRNA of the spike protein only. It is exactly what the virus does...but in this case the only thing coded for is the spike protein. Once the spike protein is replicated, the immune system says essentially “what the hell is that” and mounts the initial immune response (IgM antibodies). Once this occurs the second poster exposes the immune system and there is a larger response but this is the key to driving T-cell immunity which is memory immunity.
So “traditional” vaccines inject either the isolated protein for which to generate an immune response, or a live attenuated virus that hopefully does not cause a true infection. So in effect, the mRNA technology acts just like the virus, but does not create an entire and virulent copy, rather creates immunity in a much safer way.
This technology will lead to targeted Cancer and Viral vaccine in the future. It is a true breakthrough.