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Who Really Invented the Internet?
The Wall Street Journal ^ | July 23, 2012 | L. GORDON CROVITZ

Posted on 07/23/2012 7:06:51 AM PDT by Pharmboy

Contrary to legend, it wasn't the federal government, and the Internet had nothing to do with maintaining communications during a war.

A telling moment in the presidential race came recently when Barack Obama said: "If you've got a business, you didn't build that. Somebody else made that happen." He justified elevating bureaucrats over entrepreneurs by referring to bridges and roads, adding: "The Internet didn't get invented on its own. Government research created the Internet so that all companies could make money off the Internet."

It's an urban legend that the government launched the Internet. The myth is that the Pentagon created the Internet to keep its communications lines up even in a nuclear strike. The truth is a more interesting story about how innovation happens—and about how hard it is to build successful technology companies even once the government gets out of the way.

For many technologists, the idea of the Internet traces to Vannevar Bush, the presidential science adviser during World War II who oversaw the development of radar and the Manhattan Project....

...by the 1960s technologists were trying to connect separate physical communications networks into one global network—a "world-wide web." The federal government was involved, modestly, via the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Its goal was not maintaining communications during a nuclear attack, and it didn't build the Internet. Robert Taylor, who ran the ARPA program in the 1960s, sent an email to fellow technologists in 2004 setting the record straight: "The creation of the Arpanet was not motivated by considerations of war. The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks."

If the government didn't invent the Internet, who did?

(Excerpt) Read more at professional.wsj.com ...


TOPICS: Breaking News; Business/Economy; Extended News; Government; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: arpanet; braking; darpa; internet; invention; miltech; technology; ucla; usmilitary; xerox
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To: neverdem; SunkenCiv

A just-in-case-you-might-be-interested ping...


101 posted on 07/23/2012 10:01:05 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: yldstrk

I remember it also, but I wouldn’t say it was a ‘government’ thing per se. The government PAID for high speed comm backbones for university data transfer between researchers.

If I recall correctly, it was I think an MIT researcher who invented the HTML protocol that facilititated data transfer more easily. I don’t remember the name, but it was his protocol that became the ‘internet’.


102 posted on 07/23/2012 10:02:52 AM PDT by Gaffer
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To: yldstrk

No, that was milnet, carried over arpanet.

Politicians have this attitude that ‘if they allowed us to do something then they must have had something to do with it’.


103 posted on 07/23/2012 10:07:24 AM PDT by Usagi_yo
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To: mkjessup

Can you imagine some little guy looking at this in what...? the back of a DC Comic book?

Yes, now we have it on the net:)

Lol.


104 posted on 07/23/2012 10:12:54 AM PDT by Beowulf9
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To: Pharmboy

Vint Cerf did not invent TCP/IP, He can be credited with NCP, and he still owes me $20 bucks.


105 posted on 07/23/2012 10:15:12 AM PDT by Usagi_yo
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To: yldstrk

I’m amazed at the institutional memory loss on what really built the internet. Colleges and Universities so we could play nettrek and email each other pictures of naked ladies.

Who remembers Seismo? and UUCP — the company?


106 posted on 07/23/2012 10:19:27 AM PDT by Usagi_yo
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To: Vendome
ROLM, the first major PBX manufacturer to make Voice Mail work

The DMTS for whom I worked at Bell Labs
was awarded the patent for AUDIX in 1987

107 posted on 07/23/2012 10:20:43 AM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: maryz; mkjessup

The idea of packet switching came from Rand Corp.

Let’s also not forget long-distance signaling, the transistor, and microwaves from Ma Bell (as well as Bell Labs’ Unix)


108 posted on 07/23/2012 10:24:44 AM PDT by P.O.E. (Pray for America)
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To: samtheman
But full credit goes to the company where Mr. Taylor worked after leaving ARPA: Xerox. It was at the Xerox PARC labs in Silicon Valley in the 1970s that the Ethernet was developed to link different computer networks. Researchers there also developed the first personal computer (the Xerox Alto) and the graphical user interface that still drives computer usage today.

As a 20 year PARC vet I can attest to that. With Bill Gunning, I am personally responsible for 10-base-T ethernet and laser mice (solo).

I, for one, welcome our new Cybernetic Overlords /.

109 posted on 07/23/2012 10:28:40 AM PDT by Mycroft Holmes (<= Mash name for HTML Xampp PHP C JavaScript primer. Programming for everyone.)
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To: P.O.E.

Thanks! At least I remembered DARPA didn’t come up with it! :)


110 posted on 07/23/2012 10:31:46 AM PDT by maryz
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To: TomGuy
For a couple of years I ran the only BBS in Cape Girardeau MO.

I wrote the simple software myself in BASIC and 6502 assembler for the old Vic 20. Then I ported it to the Commodore 64 and ran it from a eprom cartridge. It used an old Cat modem and a relay controlled the phone line switching. I had a reed switch taped to the ringer coil in the phone to detect incoming calls.

The BBS had chat with the sysop which was very popular, an online text based game, rudimentary email and a raucous forum. That phone line was always in use. It cost me 4 dollars a month because I got the service that had free incoming calls but cost by the minute for outgoing...there were never any outgoing calls. When I connected two more lines and three people could connect at once and chat live it created a sensation

I also ran the only dial-a-joke service in town...built that equipment from scratch. It was called A1-Automated Time. (that name meant I was the first listing in the phone book- alphabetically) You got a voice with the correct time and then the day's joke.

I still remember the first joke. "What's old and wrinkled and smells like ginger?" ........ Fred Astair's face.

That joke caused a front-page story in the local paper ;-)

The only other dial-up lines were 8 of them that connected students to the old IBM mainframe at SEMO university. I had a small computer room with terminals and printers where fellow students would come to work on the SEMO system.

I used 4 old VHS handie talkies to put a terminal inside my old VW bus that connected back to my home phone line. I ran a mobile computer lab that became a popular hangout in the student parking lot... there was never an empty seat in the computer lab so they would line up to use the terminal in the VW. Power came from a deep-cycle marine battery and an invertor. I made a lot of good friends with that gear :-)

111 posted on 07/23/2012 10:41:09 AM PDT by Bobalu (It is not obama we are fighting, it is the media.)
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To: bmwcyle

Good link!


112 posted on 07/23/2012 10:50:00 AM PDT by <1/1,000,000th%
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To: zot; SeraphimApprentice; Interesting Times

the gorey truth about the creation of the internet.


113 posted on 07/23/2012 11:01:14 AM PDT by GreyFriar (Spearhead - 3rd Armored Division 75-78 & 83-87)
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To: Joe Boucher

yeah being a lawyer is not too fun


114 posted on 07/23/2012 11:14:57 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: mkjessup

well you have to understand that relations for the decent women start with being treated well during the day. If you are mean and nasty during the day and then aggressive at night, it isn’t going to work out so well. Forgetting birthdays, not helping etc doesn’t make a woman feel loved, and then if you want to play she feels used.


115 posted on 07/23/2012 11:19:19 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Pharmboy

Obama said: “If you’ve got a business, you didn’t build that. Somebody else made that happen.”


He could not have made a greater,or dumber, statement.
He summed up in one sentence what at heart and soul he truly believes.
Anyone who owns a bussiness, or indirectly derives a income from bussiness or industry, would have to be flat out crazy to vote to reelect this authoritarian control freak nutwad.


116 posted on 07/23/2012 11:20:33 AM PDT by Leep (Enemy of the Statist)
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To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra

Edison was an A-hole to Tesla, I know that much

Tesla was a SUPER-GENIOUS ~!!

God only knows where we could bbe if Edison had supported him rather than stiff him for the money he promised him.

Stupid Edison even went so far as to not allow Tesla to use ‘screw in’ light bulb sockets for florescent bulbs Tesla invented (for the Worlds Fair)

Tesla wasted more time and energy fighting Edison than anything else.

And Edison was 100% wrong on every issue. He died knowing it too- on his deathbed he regretted sticking to DC current when AC is vastly superior in so many ways.


117 posted on 07/23/2012 11:24:54 AM PDT by Mr. K ("The spread of evil is the symptom of a vacuum [of good]")
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bttt


118 posted on 07/23/2012 11:26:39 AM PDT by ELS (Vivat Benedictus XVI!)
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To: Pharmboy

Didn’t someone have to be on the Internet before they could log on?
Didn’t somebody have to create that account so they could log on?
Was that person already logged onto the Internet when they created that account?
Which came first - the Internet or the login?

Am I logged on?


119 posted on 07/23/2012 11:27:29 AM PDT by kinsman redeemer (The real enemy seeks to devour what is good.)
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To: TomGuy

I remember the transition from BBS and the internet being like an exclusive club and the invasion of the bohunk WebTvers.
Would have been mid-to late 90’s.
I remember because I was one...:)


120 posted on 07/23/2012 11:28:50 AM PDT by Leep (Enemy of the Statist)
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To: TomGuy

I remember the transition from BBS and the internet being like an exclusive club and the invasion of the bohunk WebTvers.
Would have been mid-to late 90’s.
I remember because I was one...:)


121 posted on 07/23/2012 11:29:03 AM PDT by Leep (Enemy of the Statist)
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To: Pharmboy

btt


122 posted on 07/23/2012 11:30:15 AM PDT by KSCITYBOY
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To: Las Vegas Ron

BM


123 posted on 07/23/2012 11:35:12 AM PDT by Las Vegas Ron (Medicine is the keystone in the arch of socialism)
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To: Usagi_yo; Pharmboy
Vint Cerf did not invent TCP/IP, He can be credited with NCP, and he still owes me $20 bucks.

Is this incorrect ?
In 1973 Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn wrote the specifications for
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), an internetworking protocol
for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes.

124 posted on 07/23/2012 11:37:59 AM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: KSCITYBOY
Used NCP in the 70’s while at Honeywell. Worked at DEC in the late 80’s when they had the largest private network. It was nothing to chat with folks in Australia, New Zealand, UK, etc.

I think the real jump start was the Work of Tim Berniers-Lee. I always wondered if he had a MAC, because they had search capabilities on MAC’s, but it was limited to one machine. I see that contribution of his to link searches across networks as the big jump in the internet.

125 posted on 07/23/2012 11:39:38 AM PDT by sleepwalker (Palin 2012)
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To: Bobalu
Remember the notorious 'Dial Your Match' BBS systems? Fun, fun for *everyone* lol

126 posted on 07/23/2012 11:41:36 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: UriÂ’el-2012
In 1973 Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn wrote the specifications for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes.

From:

Packet switching


127 posted on 07/23/2012 11:41:36 AM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: subterfuge

Too bad the article doesn’t answer the question of exactly who invented the world wide interweb ethernet thingy.

That would be the genius and original thinker, Albert in a can Gore.


128 posted on 07/23/2012 11:43:43 AM PDT by Louis Foxwell (Better the devil we can destroy than the Judas we must tolerate.)
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To: Mr. K

Seems we’re both big Tesla fans! Wish he were here today! Just imagine what he would have come up with!


129 posted on 07/23/2012 11:46:27 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: rdcbn

Haha...my wife said exactly the same thing yesterday, calling “Silicon Valley” “Silicone Valley” and I corrected her in exactly the same way!


130 posted on 07/23/2012 11:48:47 AM PDT by rlmorel ("The safest road to Hell is the gradual one." Screwtape (C.S. Lewis))
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To: samtheman

The missed opportunities of Xerox PARC is staggering.

Its like:

“Watson, come here. I need you”
“Yes, Dr. Bell?”
“Go sell these two instruments”


131 posted on 07/23/2012 11:50:45 AM PDT by eddie willers
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To: Pharmboy

When Gore said he invented the internet, I think it was a Marxist code for the Community Organized Network of thugs on the net.


132 posted on 07/23/2012 11:53:37 AM PDT by JudgemAll (Democrats Fed. job-security Whorocracy & hate:hypocrites must be gay like us or be tested/crucified)
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To: Pharmboy

I’m sorry, but this article is inaccurate and substantially denigrates the role that Robert Taylor’s championship of ARPAnet and the funding he provided to build the equipment and the network used to try out the idea of packet switching, a la ARAPnet.

There are several fine books on the history of the Internet that accurately depict what really happened.

Given the right circumstances, small amounts of government funding for advanced technologies can be beneficial, and ARPA/DARPA has been one of the most successful of all the funding agencies. Like the Bell Labs of yore, visionary leaders unfettered by bureaucracy and politics would place bets on small groups of INDIVIDUAL geniuses and their ideas and then get the hell out of the way and let those geniuses do their thing in a conducive environment. At Bell Labs we got the transistor, satellite communications, information theory, the MASER, the LASER, cellular telephony and fiber optics, just to name a few of the peace-time revolutions fostered there with that model.

And ARPA/DARPA was instrumental in fostering the foundation technologies of the Internet using similar methods. That simply cannot be taken away from them and Robert Taylor.

However, what does NOT work is crony capitalism, a la our Communist-in-Chief Barrack Obama (which was never meant to accomplish anything but kickback taxpayer bucks to campaign fund bundlers anyway) or legions of ignorant bureaucrats shoveling taxpayer money by the truck-load to politically favored “researchers” pursuing politically favored theories (e.g., anthropogenic global warming, Darwinism, etc.)

I was present in academia during the post-ARAPnet to current Internet transition, and in fact, played a part in that transition, including performing the system engineering and obtaining grant funding for a short-lived transitional Internet technology post-ARPAnet that was used to boot-strap NSFnet.

I would also add that one of the absolute great and unsung heroes of the Internet saga is a fellow by the name of Stephen Wolff at the National Science foundation, who DISMANTLED and DEFUNDED NSFnet following its wild success in interconnecting the major university and civilian research centers around the nation. Most in academia thought Stephen was crazy, but I immediately understood his goal, namely to vastly expand to the whole world the reach of the Internet from just the elite few who were funded exclusively by the taxpayer, by having the government fund only PRIVATE enterprise to replace the academic NSFnet services which had heretofore been directly funded and operated by government entities.

Steven recognized that continuing with the NSFnet as a government-operated Internet stifled its expansion to the great unwashed masses outside of academia, and he recognized the enormous potential of this technology for the whole world, and he understood the massively building demand to expand NSFnet services.

Steven also recognized that private enterprise was the best way to expand the Internet, that competition for profit amongst private enterprise would vastly outstrip any feeble government Internet expansion efforts, as well as driving costs down due to competition, none of which was possible with a government Internet monopoly.

Steven’s visionary plan was to defund the direct operation of the NSFnet by government entities by defunding those entities and instead parceling out the same funds to the academic end-user-academic-institutions who would replace their previous NSFnet Internet connection by bidding for services from one or more private entities who would build NEW privately-operated Internets with the seed money from those bids. Once built for academia, the private networks could then expand to eventually encompass the whole world.

As we all know, Steven’s brilliant visionary plan worked, even though almost no one knows that there was in fact such a plan or that it was Steven’s!

Don’t get me wrong, NSFnet and its government funding was a VITAL step towards the world wide Internet. It was the testbed for the original commercial Internet equipment makers and the original communications links providers. It was in fact what allowed Cisco and many others to start up in the first place. But. And that’s a big but. Without Steven Wolff and his visionary plan to convert the successes of the government-operated NSFnet into a private-enterprise proposition, the Internet would have remained nothing more than a slightly glorified version of France’s defunct government-operated Minitel network.

Should the NSFnet have transpired today under the Obammunistic reign of terror, there would have been no Steven Wolff at the NSF as Obama has stocked all Federal agencies from top to bottom with those who must past his litmus test of fascist socialism.

Prior to Obama and his predecessor ilk, giants did indeed use to stride the earth: intellectual giants of individual genius, perseverance and accomplishment. Today our ground is trod merely by envious socialists who coast along on the past genius and work of others, and who spend no energy except to obstruct, denigrate and steal the accomplishments of those from the past, present, and future.

Think about it. What was the last transformational technology post-WWII that has occurred after:

1. The invention of the transistor,

2. Invention of the technologies for geosynchronous satellite communication,

3. Invention of the cellular telephone system,

4. Invention of the PC,

5. Invention of the Internet,

6. Invention of the solid-state laser,

7. Invention of fiber optics,

8. Invention of the integrated circuit,

9. Invention of the microprocessor?

Nothing like those transformative technologies have been invented during the last 20 years. Why is that?


133 posted on 07/23/2012 11:57:30 AM PDT by catnipman (Cat Nipman: Vote Republican in 2012 and only be called racist one more time!)
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To: kinsman redeemer; Jim Robinson

Indeed...you are correct. Jim Robinson was the first one logged in.


134 posted on 07/23/2012 12:02:40 PM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: catnipman
Thank you for your well-informed post; most appreciated.

And, in the last 20 years, the transformative innovation is in decoding the complete human genome (but we have not seen the benefits of this quite yet).

135 posted on 07/23/2012 12:09:26 PM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: central_va
For good or evil, porn has driven web innovation like nothing else has. In the early days, mid 90’s, we would log into to porn sites just to see how they were pushing the technology envelope.

Wally? Is that you?

136 posted on 07/23/2012 12:11:48 PM PDT by Wise Hectare
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To: Pharmboy

...and AOHell almost killed it off again.


137 posted on 07/23/2012 12:14:47 PM PDT by Moltke ("I am Dr. Sonderborg," he said, "and I don't want any nonsense.")
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To: catnipman
Think about it. What was the last transformational technology post-WWII that has occurred after:

1. The invention of the transistor,

2. Invention of the technologies for geosynchronous satellite communication,

3. Invention of the cellular telephone system,

4. Invention of the PC,

5. Invention of the Internet,

6. Invention of the solid-state laser,

7. Invention of fiber optics,

8. Invention of the integrated circuit,

9. Invention of the microprocessor?

Nothing like those transformative technologies have been invented during the last 20 years. Why is that?

PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction which is the basis for all of modern molecular biology, invented by some surfer dude out of Santa Cruz named Kary Mullis in '83, not inside your 20 year window, but think of all that flowed from the fruit of that tree since.

Oh, and Bob Taylor was an ass, world class.

I, for one, welcome our new Cybernetic Overlords /.

138 posted on 07/23/2012 12:15:05 PM PDT by Mycroft Holmes (<= Mash name for HTML Xampp PHP C JavaScript primer. Programming for everyone.)
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To: Pharmboy

The internet would be worthless unless it was made accessible to masses. The private companies including compuserve, netscape and AOL made the internet useable.

If Government were in charge we would be using dial-up and DOS like screens.


139 posted on 07/23/2012 12:16:47 PM PDT by Raycpa
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To: sleepwalker
I always wondered if he had a MAC Mac, because they had search capabilities on MAC Mac’s, but it was limited to one machine

I'm guessing Tim Berniers-Lee modeled on Unix with SED, GREP & AWK.

With BSD Sockets one could search an entire network.


140 posted on 07/23/2012 12:23:01 PM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: catnipman
just to name a few of the peace-time revolutions fostered there with that model.

That was a hot peace-time. The Cold War ran from 1947–1991. We owe a good percentage of America's current wealth and prosperity to it. What we could really use now is Cold War II, with Germany and Japan on our side and China playing opposition. China is making claims on historical territories like Germany did leading up to WWII so we may just get one. Hey China, those are some nice T-Bills you got there.

141 posted on 07/23/2012 12:25:30 PM PDT by Reeses
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To: bigbob

I was about to post that too but decided to look at the existing comments to see if there was already a smart cookie here. Good show. :)

I found it to be an utterly fascinating read; the excitement at the first messages relayed from one site to another, troubleshooting with an oscilloscope, etc...


142 posted on 07/23/2012 12:37:07 PM PDT by mquinn (Obama's supporters: a deliberate drowning of consciousness by means of rhythmic noise)
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To: Slump Tester

What?

I thought the crux of the biscuit is the apostrophe!


143 posted on 07/23/2012 12:38:48 PM PDT by NonLinear (Giving money and power to government is like giving whiskey and car keys to teenage boys.)
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To: samtheman
Researchers there also developed the first personal computer (the Xerox Alto)

Let not forget Datapoint corporation which
produced the Datapoint 2200 programmable
microprocessor in the form of a PC in 1970.

It included a complete Disk Operating System in 1972.

Aside from being one of the first personal computers, the Datapoint 2200 has another connection to computer history. Its original design called for a single-chip 8-bit microprocessor for the CPU, rather than a conventional processor built from discrete TTL modules. In 1969, CTC contracted two companies, Intel and Texas Instruments, to make the chip. TI was unable to make a reliable part and dropped out. Intel was unable to make CTC's deadline. Intel and CTC renegotiated their contract, ending up with CTC keeping its money and Intel keeping the eventually completed processor.[2]

CTC released the Datapoint 2200 using about 100 discrete TTL components (SSI/MSI chips) instead of a microprocessor, while Intel's single-chip design, eventually designated the Intel 8008, was finally released in April 1972.[3] The 8008's seminal importance lies in its becoming the ancestor of Intel's other 8-bit CPUs, which were followed by their assembly language compatible 16-bit CPU's—the first members of the x86-family, as the instruction set was later to be known. Thus, CTC's engineers may be said to have fathered the world's most commonly used and emulated instruction set architecture from the mid-1980s to date.

Equally significant is the fact that the terminal's multi-chip CPU (processor) became the embryo of the x86 architecture upon which the original IBM PC and its descendants are based.


144 posted on 07/23/2012 12:46:45 PM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: Leep
I remember the transition from BBS and the internet being like an exclusive club and the invasion of the bohunk WebTvers.

I still remember the day that AOL was connected to the net, and it was invaded by the unwashed hordes.

145 posted on 07/23/2012 12:47:56 PM PDT by zeugma (Those of us who work for a living are outnumbered by those who vote for a living.)
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To: Pharmboy

DARPA? PLATO preceded DARPA Net.

PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations) was the first (ca. 1960, on ILLIAC I) generalized computer assisted instruction system, and, by the late 1970s, comprised several thousand terminals worldwide on nearly a dozen different networked mainframe computers. Originally, PLATO was built by the University of Illinois and functioned for four decades, offering coursework (elementary–university) to UIUC students, local schools, and other universities. Several descendant systems still operate.

The PLATO project was assumed by the Control Data Corporation (CDC), who built the machines with which PLATO operated at the University. CDC President William Norris planned to make PLATO a force in the computer world; the last production PLATO system was shut down in 2006 (coincidentally, just a month after Norris died), yet it established key on-line concepts: forums, message boards, online testing, e-mail, chat rooms, picture languages, instant messaging, remote screen sharing, and multi-player games.


146 posted on 07/23/2012 12:50:57 PM PDT by Ben Mugged ("Life's tough..... It's even tougher if you're stupid." John Wayne)
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To: samtheman
But full credit goes to the company where Mr. Robert Taylor worked after leaving ARPA: Xerox.

I agree. Xerox PARC came up first with the concept on local area network. Xerox PARC also invented mouse, touch screen, GUI, etc...

147 posted on 07/23/2012 12:51:31 PM PDT by hamboy
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To: Ben Mugged

The PLATO project, initially funded by the military, also invented the first plasma display screen. Today many foodstampers enjoy plasma screens in their living rooms while they bid their time for the O’Bastard to get laid off.


148 posted on 07/23/2012 12:59:24 PM PDT by Reeses
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To: adorno

So many people have no clue as to just how much is even sub-contracted from those contracted producers. My husband is a machinist and has helped build a great many things that our government, military, and scientific agencies use. Once in a while he’s worked on projects where everything is under armed guards (some years back). The “government” can’t do ANYTHING on their own, and even when it tries to supposedly “help” business and technology 99.9% of the time it’s a payback to cronies who could care less if the job is actually done, or done well at all.

I’m getting off-track because this whole attitude that the President has brought to light is being defended by some real idiots in our world. What I wish is that all those people - including our President would go buy an island somewhere and try to make it with all of their rules, and NO HELP from anywhere else. They’d all be starving or dead within a year (depending on climate).


149 posted on 07/23/2012 1:00:11 PM PDT by LibertyRocks
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To: The Great RJ
I am sure it would be at least 20 years behind where it is today or still just a university based curiosity.

Government mandate of IE 6?

150 posted on 07/23/2012 1:04:46 PM PDT by matt04
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