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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 - June 22nd, 2005
American History Magazine
| October 1998
| Larry Gragg
Posted on 06/21/2005 9:28:25 PM PDT by SAMWolf
Keep our Troops forever in Your care
Give them victory over the enemy...
Grant them a safe and swift return...
Bless those who mourn the lost.
FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.
.................................................................. .................... ...........................................
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Order vs. Liberty
When Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, it opened a heated debate about the limits of freedom in a free society.
On July 4, 1798, the citizens of the capital city of Philadelphia turned out in large numbers to celebrate the nation's independence day. While militia companies marched through the streets, church bells rang, and artillery units fired salutes, members of the United States Senate were trying to conduct a debate on a critical bill. One senator noted "the military parade so attracted the attention of the majority that much the greater part of them stood with their bodies out of the windows and could not be kept to order." Once they resumed their deliberations, however, the Federalist majority succeeded in gaining passage of an implausible bill, one quickly approved by the House of Representatives and signed on July 14 by President John Adams.
Ironically, as senators celebrated the freedom they had won from Britain, they approved a sedition bill that made it illegal to publish or utter any statements about the government that were "false, scandalous and malicious" with the "intent to defame" or to bring Congress or the president into "contempt or disrepute." This bill, seemingly a violation of the Constitution's First Amendment free speech protections, had a chilling effect on members of the Republican Party and its leader, Thomas Jefferson, who admitted that he feared "to write what I think."
Support for this restrictive legislation had grown out of Federalist belief that the young nation was facing its gravest crisis yet, in the possibility of war with France and the spread of anti-immigrant feeling. The new law violated the beliefs of many Republicans, who regarded Federalists as reactionary defenders of privilege intent on bringing back the monarchy. Federalists saw their Republican opposites as irresponsible radicals eager to incite a social revolution as democratic as the one that had torn through France.
Nothing divided Federalist from Republican more than their response to the French Revolution. Republicans applauded the revolutionaries' destruction of aristocratic privileges, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the implementation of constitutional government. Yet, Federalists saw the same dramatic changes as the degeneration of legitimate government into mob rule, particularly during the bloody "Reign of Terror" when "counterrevolutionaries" lost their lives on the guillotine.
Federalist fears deepened as they watched the new French republican government encourage wars of liberation and conquest in Belgium, Switzerland, Holland, and the Italian peninsula. Rumors were rampant in 1798 about a possible French invasion of America, one that allegedly would be supported by American traitors and a population of French émigrés that had grown to more than 20,000.
The nation's rapidly growing immigrant population deeply troubled Federalists. One Pennsylvania newspaper argued that "none but the most vile and worthless" were inundating the country. William Shaw, the president's nephew, arguing that "all our present difficulties may be traced" to the "hordes of Foreigners" in the land, contended America should "no longer" be "an asylum to all nations." Federalists worried about the 60,000 Irish immigrants in the new nation, some of whom had been exiled for plotting against British rule. These malcontents, they argued, along with French immigrants, and a sprinkling of British radicals like the liberal theologian and scientist Joseph Priestley, presented a grave challenge to the nation. The Federalists feared that the extremist ideas of the dissenters would corrupt and mobilize the destitute.
The British government, even more terrified than the Americans that ideas from the radical French regime might spread, had been at war with France for five years, trying to contain it. Both nations had seized neutral American ships headed to their enemy's ports. President Adams initiated a two-pronged plan to stop the French from seizing any further ships. He sent three emissaries to negotiate with the French government, and he worked to push bills through Congress to increase the size of the navy and army. Federalist revulsion at anything associated with France reached a peak in spring 1798 when word arrived in Philadelphia that three French agents, identified only as X, Y, and Z, had demanded a bribe from the American diplomats before they would begin negotiations.
Insulted by the French government, convinced that war was inevitable, and anxious over a "dangerous" alien population in their midst, Federalists in Philadelphia were ready to believe any rumor. They saw no reason to doubt the warning in a letter found outside the president's residence in late April. It supposedly contained information about a plot by a group of Frenchmen "to sit [sic] fire to the City in various parts, and to Massacre the inhabitants." Hundreds of militiamen patrolled the city streets as a precaution, and a special guard was assigned to the president's home. John Adams ordered "chests of arms from the war-office," as he was "determined to defend my house at the expense of my life."
In such a crisis atmosphere, Federalists took action to prevent domestic subversion. They supported four laws passed in June and July 1798 to control the threats they believed foreigners posed to the security of the nation and to punish the opposition party for its seditious libel.
Two of these laws represented the Federalist effort to address perceived threats from the nation's immigrant groups. The Alien Enemies Act permitted the deportation of aliens who hailed from a nation with which the United States was at war, while the Alien Friends Act empowered the president, during peacetime, to deport any alien whom he considered dangerous.
Although some historians acknowledge that there were legitimate national security concerns involved in the passage of the two alien acts, others conclude that the two additional pieces of legislation were blatant efforts to destroy the Republican Party, which had gained many immigrant supporters.
The Naturalization Act extended the residency requirement for citizenship from five to 14 years. For a few politicians, such as Congressmen Robert Goodloe Harper and Harrison Gray Otis, even this act was insufficient. They believed that citizenship should be limited to those born in the United States.
Apart from its limitations on speech, the Sedition Act, the last of the four laws, made it illegal to "unlawfully combine or conspire together, with intent to oppose any measure or measures of the government." While the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution established that Congress couldn't pass laws "abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble," there had been little discussion about the amendment's precise meaning since its adoption seven years earlier.
In 1798 many Federalists drew upon Commentaries on the Laws of England written by Sir William Blackstone--the man considered by the framers of the Constitution to be the oracle of the common law--for their definition of liberty of the press. Blackstone wrote, "liberty of the press . . . consists in laying no previous restraints upon publications." However, if a person "publishes what is improper, mischievous, or illegal, he must take the consequences of his own temerity." In other words, if a person spoke or wrote remarks that could be construed as seditious libel, they weren't entitled to free speech protection
KEYWORDS: adams; alienact; federalists; freeperfoxhole; jefferson; madison; seditionact; veterans
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According to the Federalists, if seditious libel meant any effort to malign or weaken the government, then the Republican press was repeatedly guilty. Republican papers, claimed the Federalists, such as the Philadelphia Aurora, the New York Argus, the Richmond Examiner, and Boston's Independent Chronicle printed the most scurrilous statements, lies, and misrepresentations about President Adams and the Federalist Party.
The president's wife, Abigail, complained bitterly about journalistic "abuse, deception and falsehood." Particularly galling to her were the characterizations of her husband in editor Benjamin Bache's Aurora. In April 1798 Bache called the president "old, querulous, Bald, blind, crippled, Toothless Adams." Bache, she argued, was a "lying wretch" given to the "most insolent and abusive" language. He wrote with the "malice" of Satan. The First Lady repeatedly demanded that something be done to stop this "wicked and base, violent and calumniating abuse" being "leveled against the Government." She argued that if journalists like Bache weren't stopped, the nation would be plunged into a "civil war."
At the same time, Federalists were hardly models of decorum when describing Republicans. Their opponents were, one Federalist wrote, "democrats, mobocrats and all other kinds of rats." Federalist Noah Webster characterized Republicans as "the refuse, the sweepings of the most depraved part of mankind from the most corrupt nations on earth."
Although President Adams neither framed the Sedition Act nor encouraged its introduction, he certainly supported it. He issued many public statements about the evils of the opposition press. Adams believed that journalists who deliberately distorted the news to mislead the people could cause great harm to a representative democracy.
Letters and remarks of John and Abigail Adams made passage of a sedition bill easier, but the task of pushing it through Congress fell to Senator James Lloyd of Maryland and Congressmen Robert Goodloe Harper and Harrison Gray Otis. Although it passed by a wide margin in the Senate, the bill barely gained approval in the House of Representatives, where the vote was 44 to 41. To win even that small majority, Harper and Otis had to change the original bill in significant ways. Prosecutors would have to prove malicious intent, and truth would be permitted as a defense. Juries, not judges, would determine whether a statement was libelous. To underscore its political purpose, the act was to expire on March 3, 1801, the last day of President Adams' term of office.
Prosecutions began quickly. On June 26, even before the Sedition Act was passed, Supreme Court Justice Richard Peters issued a warrant for the arrest of Benjamin Bache. Bache, the most powerful of all the Republican newspaper editors, was charged with "libeling the President and the Executive Government in a manner tending to excite sedition and opposition to the laws." Less than two weeks later, federal marshals arrested John Daly Burk, editor of the New York newspaper Time Piece, for making "seditious and libelous" statements against the president. Neither faced trial, however. Bache died in Philadelphia during the yellow fever epidemic of September 1798, and Burk, who wasn't a citizen, agreed to deportation if charges were dropped. He then fled to Virginia to live under an assumed name.
During the next two years 17 people were indicted under the Sedition Act, and 10 were convicted. Most were journalists. Included among them were William Duane, who had succeeded Benjamin Bache as editor of the Aurora; Thomas Cooper, a British radical who edited a small Pennsylvania newspaper; Charles Holt, editor of a New London, Connecticut, newspaper; and James Callender, who had worked on the Aurora before moving to Virginia's Richmond Examiner. Like Benjamin Bache, Callender delighted in condemning the president.
The Federalists didn't target only journalists. They went after other individuals, including David Brown of Dedham, Massachusetts, who spouted anti-government rhetoric wherever a crowd gathered. Brown was arrested in April 1799, charged with "uttering seditious pieces" and helping to erect a liberty pole with a placard that read "A Speedy Retirement to the President. No Sedition bill, No Alien bill, Downfall to the Tyrants of America."
Incredibly, even an inebriated Republican, Luther Baldwin of Newark, New Jersey, became a victim. Following the adjournment of Congress in July 1798, President Adams and his wife were traveling through Newark on their way to their home in Quincy, Massachusetts. Residents lined the streets as church bells rang, and ceremonial cannon fire greeted the party. As the procession made its way past a local tavern owned by John Burnet, one of the patrons remarked, "There goes the President and they are firing at his a__." According to the Newark Centinel of Freedom, Baldwin added that, "he did not care if they fired thro' his a__." Burnet overheard the exchange and exclaimed, "That is seditious." Baldwin was arrested and later convicted of speaking "seditious words tending to defame the President and Government of the United States." He was fined $150, assessed court costs and expenses, and sent to jail until he paid the fine and fees.
The most outrageous case, however, involved Congressman Matthew Lyon, a Republican from Vermont. This fiery Irishman was one of the sharpest critics of President Adams and the Federalists. He had even engaged in a brawl on the House floor with Federalist Roger Griswold. Convinced that the Federalists intended to use the Sedition Act to silence their congressional opposition, Lyon confided to a colleague that it "most probably would be brought to bear upon himself first victim of all."
While not the initial victim, Lyon quickly felt the wrath of the majority party. In the summer of 1798, he wrote an article criticizing President Adams' "continual grasp for power" and his "unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice." During his fall re-election campaign, Lyon also quoted from a letter that suggested Congress should dispatch the president to a "mad house" for his handling of the French crisis. In October, a federal grand jury indicted Lyon for stirring up sedition and bringing "the President and government of the United States into contempt."
United States Supreme Court justices, sitting as circuit court judges, presided in the sedition trials. These judges, all Federalists, rejected the efforts of defendants and their counsel to challenge the law's constitutionality. Samuel Chase, who sat in three of the cases, clearly was on a mission. "There is nothing we should more dread," he argued, "than the licentiousness of the press."
Chase and the other judges handed down tough sentences. While none imposed the statute's maximum penalties of a $2,000 fine or a jail sentence of two years, they often sent the guilty to jail. Most of the convicted endured three- or four-month sentences. James Callender, however, served nine months, and David Brown twice as long. The average fines were about $300, although Luther Baldwin's fine was $150 and Matthew Lyon's was $1,000.
As the trials progressed, two Republican Party leaders, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, tried to overturn the Sedition Act. Concluding that the Bill of Rights couldn't prevent abuses of power by the federal government, the two men collaborated on a set of protest resolutions asserting that the government was a compact created by the states and that citizens, speaking through their state legislatures, had the right to judge the constitutionality of actions taken by the government. In this instance, they called upon the states to join them in declaring the Alien and Sedition Acts to be "void, and of no force."
While only Kentucky and Virginia endorsed the resolutions, the efforts of Jefferson and Madison encouraged Republicans to make the Alien and Sedition Acts major issues in the campaign of 1800. Voter anger over these bills, along with higher taxes and the escalating federal debt resulting from increased defense spending, gave Republicans a majority in the House of Representatives. The Federalists lost almost 40 seats, leaving the new Congress with 66 Republicans and only 40 Federalists.
posted on 06/21/2005 9:28:29 PM PDT
To: snippy_about_it; radu; Victoria Delsoul; LaDivaLoca; TEXOKIE; cherry_bomb88; Bethbg79; Pippin; ...
There were other unexpected results from the passage of the Sedition Act. Clearly, Federalists had hoped to stifle the influence of the fewer than 20 Republican newspapers published in 1798. Some, like John Daly Burk's Time Piece, did cease publication; others suspended operation while their editors were in jail. However, circulation increased for the majority of the periodicals. Most discouraging to the Federalists, particularly as the campaigns for the 1800 election got under way, was the fact that more than 30 new Republican newspapers began operation following passage of the Sedition Act.
Not even prison stopped Republican Congressman Matthew Lyon. The most visible target of the Federalists, Lyon conducted his re-election campaign from his jail cell in Vergennes, Vermont. Considered a martyr by his supporters, Lyon regularly contributed to this image through letters and newspaper articles. "It is quite a new kind of jargon to call a Representative of the People an Opposer of the Government because he does not, as a legislator, advocate and acquiesce in every proposition that comes from the Executive," he wrote. In a December run-off election, Lyon won easily.
By 1802, in the wake of the Federalist election defeat, the Alien Friends Act, the Sedition Act, and the Naturalization Act had expired or been repealed. The Alien Enemies Act remained in effect, but no one had been prosecuted under its provisions because the United States hadn't declared war on France, a necessary condition for the law's implementation. After winning the presidency in the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson pardoned all those convicted of violating the Sedition Act who remained in prison.
By virtually every measure, the Federalist effort to impose a one-party press and a one-party government on the fledgling nation had failed. Ironically, the Sedition Act prompted the opposition to expand its view of free speech and freedom of the press. In a series of essays, tracts, and books, Republicans began to argue that the First Amendment protected citizens from any federal restraint on the press or speech. Notable among them was a pamphlet entitled An Essay on the Liberty of the Press, published in 1799 by George Hay, a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. Hay argued "that if the words freedom of the press have any meaning at all they mean a total exemption from any law making any publication whatever criminal." In his 1801 inaugural address, Thomas Jefferson echoed Hay's sentiments, stressing the necessity of preserving the right of citizens "to think freely and to speak and to write what they think."
For most, the arguments of Hay and Jefferson have prevailed, although even the Republicans were willing to acknowledge that states could and should impose speech restrictions under certain conditions. Moreover, there have been occasions, most notably during World War I, when the federal government declared that free expression was secondary to military necessity. In an effort to suppress dissent and anti-war activity in 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act, a law that made it a felony to try to cause insubordination in the armed forces or to convey false statements with intent to interfere with military operations. It was followed by the Sedition Act of 1918, which banned treasonable or seditious material from the mail. Under this provision the mailing of many publications, including the New York Times as well as radical and dissident newspapers, was temporarily halted.
posted on 06/21/2005 9:29:27 PM PDT
(If quizzes are quizzical, what are tests?)
| In the 200 years since the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, each generation of Americans has struggled to determine the limits of free speech and freedom of the press. In large part, it has been a dilemma of reconciling freedom and security with liberty and order. For the Federalist Party in 1798, however, the answer was simple; order and security had to prevail.
posted on 06/21/2005 9:29:47 PM PDT
(If quizzes are quizzical, what are tests?)
Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.
Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.
We here at Blue Stars For A Safe Return are working hard to honor all of our military, past and present, and their families. Inlcuding the veterans, and POW/MIA's. I feel that not enough is done to recognize the past efforts of the veterans, and remember those who have never been found.
I realized that our Veterans have no "official" seal, so we created one as part of that recognition. To see what it looks like and the Star that we have dedicated to you, the Veteran, please check out our site.
Veterans Wall of Honor
Blue Stars for a Safe Return
UPDATED THROUGH APRIL 2004
The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul
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posted on 06/21/2005 9:30:54 PM PDT
(If quizzes are quizzical, what are tests?)
To: Bigturbowski; ruoflaw; Bombardier; Steelerfan; SafeReturn; Brad's Gramma; AZamericonnie; SZonian; ..
"FALL IN" to the FReeper Foxhole!
Good Wednesday Morning Everyone.
If you want to be added to our ping list, let us know.
posted on 06/21/2005 9:34:31 PM PDT
(Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
No surprise that a president from Mass would try to suppress free speech and a free press, and that it would take a southerner to right the wrongs committed.
posted on 06/21/2005 10:29:31 PM PDT
Good morning Snippy.
posted on 06/22/2005 1:34:30 AM PDT
(2 Chronicles 7:14.)
posted on 06/22/2005 2:49:37 AM PDT
("War means fighting, and fighting means killing." - Bedford Forrest)
Good morning, snippy and everyone at the Freeper Foxhole.
posted on 06/22/2005 3:04:49 AM PDT
To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor
The regularly scheduled poster of the Flag-O-Gram is due back tomorrow
Today's pic is of the LST 325 and the USS Constitution in Boston Harbor
Oh amd a Hump Day Bump for the Freeper Foxhole to boot
posted on 06/22/2005 3:07:07 AM PDT
(Two wrongs don't make a right, but two Wrights made an airplane!)
To: alfa6; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; radu; All
Good morning everyone.
To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All
|June 22, 2005
Christianity's Best Argument
Always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you. 1 Peter 3:15
What's the best argument we can give those who ask why we have accepted Jesus as our Savior? How can we most persuasively bear witness to our faith?
"Always be ready," Peter urged, "to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you" (1 Peter 3:15). The Greek term for "reason" is apology. That doesn't mean a weak-kneed excuse; it means a convincing argument.
Philosopher William Alston of Syracuse University has written very helpful books in defense of the Christian faith. He has something to say that should encourage all of us: "The final test of the Christian scheme comes from trying it out in one's life, testing the promises the scheme tells us God has made, following in the way enjoined on us by the church, and seeing whether it leads to the new life of the Spirit."
Don't think that because you aren't a philosopher or a scholar that you can't be an apologist. You can bear witness to the truth and power of the gospel. Your life can be your own best argumentyour best defense of your faith in Jesus Christto anyone who asks why you believe.
So put your faith into practice. Let people see the difference Jesus makes. Vernon Grounds
O that my life may useful be
As I serve Jesus faithfully;
And may the world see Christ in me
This is my earnest prayer. Hess
People will listen to you carefully if they see you living faithfully.
FOR FURTHER STUDY
How Can I Break The Silence?
posted on 06/22/2005 5:14:55 AM PDT
by The Mayor
( Pray as if everything depends on God; work as if everything depends on you.)
On This Day In History
Birthdates which occurred on June 22:
1478 Philips de Schone, Archduke of Austrian/King of Castilia (Philips I)
1757 George Vancouver, surveyed Pacific coast from SF to Vancouver I
1814 James Henry Lane, MC (Union), died in 1866 [or Jul 28 1833]
1837 Paul Morphy New Orleans, greatest chess player of all time (1857-61)
1856 H Rider Haggard author (King Solomon's Mine, She)
1858 Giacomo Puccini Italy, operatic composer (Madama Butterfly)
1887 Sir Julian Huxley London, biologist/philosopher, Darwin's Bulldog
1896 Francis C Denebrink US Naval officer (WW I, WW II, Korea)
1898 Erich Maria Remarque novelist (All Quiet on the Western Front)
1900 Jennie Tourel [Jennie Davidson], St Petersburg Russia, mezzo-soprano
1903 Carl Hubbell pitcher (NY Giants)-253 wins, 2.97 lifetime ERA
1903 John Dillinger one of America's Most Wanted
1906 Billy Wilder movie director (Some Like It Hot, Apartment, Stalag 17)
1907 Anne Morrow Lindbergh aviator/author (Gift from the Sea)
1920 Paul Frees Chicago Ill, animation voice (Bullwinkle)
1921 Gower Champion choreographer (42nd Street)
1922 Bill Blass Ft Wayne Ind, fashion designer (Nancy Reagan)
1928 Orson Bean Burlington Vt, comedian (I Got a Secret, To Tell the Truth)
1929 Ralph Waite actor (The Waltons, Cool Hand Luke, 5 Easy Piece)
1933 Dianne Feinstein (Senator D-Ca.)
1941 Ed Bradley Phila, CBS news correspondant (60 Minutes)
1947 David L Lander Bkln NY, actor (Squiggy-Laverne & Shirley)
1947 Don Henley drummer/singer (Eagles, Boys of Summer)
1948 "Pistol" Pete Maravich NBA star (Atlanta Hawks)
1948 Todd Rundgren rock singer (Hello it's Me, Bang on the Drum All Day)
1949 Lindsay Wagner LA Ca, actress (Bionic Woman, Paper Chase, Nighthawks)
1949 Meryl Streep NJ, actress (French Lieutenant's Woman, Sophie's Choice)
1954 Freddie Prinze NYC, comedian/actor (Chico & the Man)
Deaths which occurred on June 22:
1276 Innocent V, [Pierre the Tarantaise], Pope (1276), dies at about 36
1874 Howard Staunton world chess champion, designer of chess pieces, dies
1922 Field Marshal Sir Henry H Wilson murdered in London
1945 Isamu Tsjo, Japanese chief-staff 32nd Army, commits harakiri
1945 Mitsuri Ushijima, Jap lt-gen/commandant 32nd Army, commits harakiri
1954 Don Hollenbeck newscaster (CBS Weekend News), dies at 49
1965 David O Selznick Gone With the Wind's producer, dies at 63
1969 Judy Garland singer/actress, dies in London at 47
1987 Fred Astaire actor/dancer, dies at Century City Hospital in LA at 88
1988 Dennis Day Jack Benny Show singer, dies of Lou Gehrigs disease at 71
1993 Pat Nixon, 1st lady (1969-75), dies of lung cancer at 81
1995 Georges Yves Marie Congar, Dominican theologian cardinal, dies at 91
2002 Esther Lederer (83) aka Ann Landers dies
22-Jun-2003 1 | US: 1 | UK: 0 | Other: 0
US Specialist Orenthial Javon Smith Baghdad Hostile - hostile fire - ambush
22-Jun-2004 2 | US: 2 | UK: 0 | Other: 0
US 1st Lieutenant Andre D. Tyson Balad (near) Hostile - hostile fire
US Sergeant Patrick R. McCaffrey Sr. Balad (near) Hostile - hostile fire
06/22/03 Michaud, Seth R. Captain 27 Marine Combined Jt. Task Force - Horn of Africa Friendly fire Godoria Range, Djibouti http://icasualties.org/oif/
Data research by Pat Kneisler
Designed and maintained by Michael White
On this day...
0431 Council of Ephesus (3rd ecumenical council) opens
0816 Stephen IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1342 Bilbo Baggins returns to his home at Bag End, (Shire reckoning)
1377 Richard II succeeds Edward III as king of England
1497 Antitax insurrection in Cornwall suppressed at Blackheath
1559 Jewish quarter of Prague burned and looted
1611 Henry Hudson & son set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers
1675 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II
1772 Slavery outlawed in England
1775 1st Continental currency issued ($3,000,000)
1807 British board USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to War of 1812
1808 Zebulon Pike reaches his peak
1812 Napoleon's Grand Army invades Russia
1815 2nd abdication of Napoleon (after Waterloo)
1847 Doughnut created
1848 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for Pres
1849 Stephen C Massett opens courthouse using only piano in Calif
1851 Fire destroys part of SF
1868 Arkansas re-enters US
1870 Congress creates Department of Justice
1873 Prince Edward Island joins Canada
1874 Dr Andrew T Sill, of Macon, Missouri, finds science of osteopathy
1876 General Alfred Terry sends Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer to the Rosebud and Little Bighorn rivers to search of Indian villages (Do you think He'll find any?)
1889 Louisville Colonels set ML baseball record with 26th consecutive loss
1910 1st airship with passengers sets afloat-Zeppelin Deutscheland
1911 King George V of England crowned
1918 Circus train rammed by troop train kills 68 (Ivanhoe Illinois)
1936 Virgin Islands receives a constution from US (Organic Act)
1937 Joe Louis KOs James Braddock for the heavyweight boxing crown
1938 Joe Louis KOs Max Schmeling at 2:04 of 1st round at Yankee Stadium
1940 France falls to Nazi Germany; armistice signed, France disarmed
1941 Estonians starts armed resistance against Soviet occupation
1941 Germany declares war on Soviet Union during WW II
1942 A Japanese submarine shells Fort Stevens, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River.
1944 FDR signs "GI Bill of Rights" (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)
1944 Longest shut out in Phillies history, Phils beat Braves 1-0 in 15 inn Boston Brave Jim Tobin 2nd no-hitter of yr beats Phils, 7-0 in 5 inn
1945 Battle for Okinawa officially ended; 12,520 Americans and 110,000 Japanese were killed in the 81-day campaign.
1947 12" rain in 42 mins (Holt, MO)
1949 Ezzard Charles defeats Jersey Joe Walcott for the boxing title
1957 KC stops using streetcars in it's transit system
1958 Game in KC between A's & Red Sox delayed 29 minutes due to tornado
1959 "Along Came Jones" by Coasters peaks at #9
1959 Eddie Lubanski bowls 2 consecutive perfect games
1959 Most Phillies strike out in a game (16 by Sandy Koufax)
1959 Vanguard SLV-6 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
1969 Aretha Franklin arrested in Detroit for creating a disturbance
1970 Pres Nixon signs 26th amendment (voting age lowered to 18)
1973 Skylab 2's astronauts land
1977 Former AG John Mitchell starts 19 months in Alabama prison
1978 James Christy's discovery of Pluto's moon Charon announced
1978 Neo-Nazis call off plans to march in Jewish community of Skokie, Ill (I hate Illinois Nazis)
1980 Jim King begins riding Miracle Strip Roller coaster 368 hours (SOMEBODY needs a life)
1981 2 Habash terrorists attack a travel agency in Greece killing 2
1981 John McEnroe exhibites a disgraceful act of misbehavior at Wimbeldon (SHOCK)
1981 Mark David Chapman pleads guilty to killing John Lennon
1982 Susan Lea Hammett, of Miss, 18, crowned 25th America's Junior Miss
1983 "Monty Python's The Meaning of Life," released in France
1983 1st time a satellite is retrieved from orbit by Space Shuttle
1983 NHL institutes a 5 minute sudden death overtime period
1984 Calvin Griffith signs letter of intent to sell ownership of Twins
1984 Carl Pohlad becomes CEO of Minn Twins
1990 Florida passes a law prohibits wearing a throng bathing suit
1991 Underwater volcano, Mount Didicas, erupts in Phillipines
1996 At their first summit in six years, Arab leaders meeting in Cairo, Egypt, urged Israel to prove its commitment to peace by resuming negotiations without delay.
(and now back to the real world)
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray ended his investigation of the 1993 firings in the White House travel office, issuing no indictments but saying he'd found "substantial evidence" that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton played a role in the dismissals.
2002 Tens of thousands of people banged drums, blew whistles and danced their way through Seville's streets in a rally against globalization. (Futile Gesture Alert)
2004 Former Pres. Clintons 957-page memoir My Life went on sale
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"
Congo : Army Day
El Salvador : School Teacher's Day/D¡a del Maestro
Haiti : Sovereignty Day/President's Day
Virgin Islands : Organic Act Day (1954)
Yemen PDR : Corrective Move Day
Newfoundland : Discovery Day (1497-John Cabot) (Monday)
National Sheriff's Week (Day 3)
National Doughnuts Day (All Hail the mighty Donut)
National Chocolate Eclair Day (Better and Better!)
National Dream Work Month
RC : Mem of SS John Fisher, bp, martyr, & Thomas More, martyr (opt)
witch : Alban Hefin sabbat
Ang : Feast of Alban, 1st martyr of Britain
RC : Feast of St Paulinus, bishop of Nola, confessor
1559 In England, Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book was issued. During her 45-year reign, Elizabeth I rejected the Catholic faith, adopting instead the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church.
1745 Colonial missionary to the American Indians David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'I am often weary of this world, and want to leave it on that account; but it is more desirable to be drawn, rather than driven out of it.'
1750 Clergyman Jonathan Edwards was dismissed from his Congregational pulpit in Northampton, MA, after serving there 23 years. Maintaining his ultra- conservative theology, Edwards had grown to become administratively too inflexible for his congregation.
1865 The society known today as the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was first organized. Its purpose is to provide information about the archaeology, the history and the people of the Holy Land.
1870 Scholars began translation work on the English Revised Version of the Bible. Released in 1881, the ERV became the textual basis for the American Standard Version (ASV), first published in the United States in 1901.
Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.
New York (Reuters): Three former waiters at New Yorks posh 21 Club, where a hamburger costs $30, have filed a $5 million discrimination lawsuit saying they were fired for being French. In a civil suit made public on Monday at a Manhattan court, the three men, Rene Bordet, 68, Jean Claude Lesbre, 63 and Yves Thepault, 68, said the restaurants management falsely accused them of drinking wine on the job and created and fostered an environment rife with anti-French sentiment. Both Bordet and Lesbre worked for 10 years as waiters and floor captains before being fired in 2004.
Thought for the day :
"When you become senile, you won't know it."
posted on 06/22/2005 5:48:11 AM PDT
(The right to do something does not mean that doing it is right.)
Liberty: 'The Mother, not the Daughter of Order'
Thankfully, the election of 1800 stopped, for the moment, the rule of those d*** federalists/mercantilists/socialists/mono-centrists.
To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; Darksheare; alfa6; SAMWolf; ...
'Morning folks. Long wasted day in Joisy yesterday. Topped off by the cancellation of my return flight. So we punted, and I had to set foot in the one place is the USA I vowed never to set foot.
That's right, Nuevo Yawk City. Home of those other picante sauces (Get a Rope!). So, I can now say I've seen the Brooklyn Bridge (Pretty cool, especially with two HUGE flags on the towers), The Umpire State building (Yer OUT!) and the Walter P. Whatshisname Building.
Somewhere in Brooklyn or so, we saw hundreds of folks dressed in black with funny black hats, and curled sideburns dangling below their chins. To steal a quote, "I thought they only did that s@%t in the movies".
Said stolen quote coming from on of my Airman during my USAF tenure. This Airman was a New York native referring to the sea of Cowboy Hats seen the first time he set foot in a bar in Texas. Heh heh heh
Speaking of Joisy, we had to stop and ask for directions, Mapquest having failed us. We stopped FOUR times. The fourth time being a bank, since the folks at gas stations being unable to communicate in Engrish. How far off target were we you ask? Three friggin miles! A call to the folks at the meeting place was no help either. ME: we're at CR-514 and Anteres in Woodbridge. THEM: I don't live here, I can't help. Oy vey.
To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; Iris7; Valin
Morning Glory Folks~
Excellent read about the Alien and Sedition Act. Somehow it's debate seems ripe for today's media.
Supreme Court Justice Richard Peters issued a warrant for the arrest of Benjamin Bache.
Interesting power of SCOTUS.
Their opponents were, one Federalist wrote, "democrats, mobocrats and all other kinds of rats."
And they still are.
posted on 06/22/2005 7:32:33 AM PDT
(Where can I buy a ball-cap with the bill sewn on the side? All mine are on the front.)
To: Professional Engineer
Happy to hear you got back in one piece to Texas.
From your Nuevo Yawk FRiend.
To: Professional Engineer
I hope you didn't tell them you were from Texas. As I recall they have laws against Texans roaming around unsupervised there.
posted on 06/22/2005 8:16:15 AM PDT
(The right to do something does not mean that doing it is right.)
Two CH-46E Sea Knights from the Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 264 take off on a mission June 18, 2005. The "Black Knights" have a detachment of Marines and aircraft in Al Qaim, Iraq conducting casualty evacuation missions during Operation Spear. U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Juan Vara
U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Jared C. Althouse, a 24-year-old Columbus, Ohio native and fireteam leader with 2nd platoon, Lima Co., 3/25 prepares to enter with his squad in Karabilah during Operation Spear. U.S. Marine Corps photo by Corporal Ken Melton
U.S. Marines with 2nd platoon, Lima Co., 3/25 prepares to enter a buliding in Karabilah during Operation Spear. U.S. Marine Corps photo by Corporal Ken Melton
U.S. Marine Corps Cpl. Jared C. Althouse, a 24-year-old Columbus, Ohio native and fireteam leader with 2nd platoon, Lima Co., 3/25 provides security for his squad in Karabilah during Operation Spear. U.S. Marine Corps photo by Corporal Ken Melton
To: SAMWolf; Peanut Gallery
Their opponents were, one Federalist wrote, "democrats, mobocrats and all other kinds of rats."
ROFLMAO. The more times change...
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