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How Private Property Saved the Pilgrims
Hoover Institution Stanford University ^ | January 30, 1999 | Tom Bethell

Posted on 11/22/2012 4:13:44 PM PST by Founding Father

When the Pilgrims landed in 1620, they established a system of communal property. Within three years they had scrapped it, instituting private property instead. Hoover media fellow Tom Bethell tells the story.

There are three configurations of property rights: state, communal, and private property. Within a family, many goods are in effect communally owned. But when the number of communal members exceeds normal family size, as happens in tribes and communes, serious and intractable problems arise. It becomes costly to police the activities of the members, all of whom are entitled to their share of the total product of the community, whether they work or not. This is the free-rider problem, and it is the most important institutional reason tribes and communes cannot rise above subsistence level (except in special circumstances, such as monasteries).

State ownership, as we saw in the Soviet Union, has its own problems. For these reasons, private property is the only institutional arrangement that will permit a society to be productive, peaceful, free, and just. The free-rider problem was plainly demonstrated at Plymouth Colony in 1620, when the Mayflower arrived in the New World. Contrary to the Pilgrims’ wishes, their initial ownership arrangement was communal property.

Desiring to practice their religion as they wished, the Pilgrims emigrated in 1609 from England to Holland, then the only country in Europe that permitted freedom of worship. They found life in Holland to be in many respects satisfactory. But war with Spain was a constant threat, and the Pilgrims did not want their children to grow up Dutch. They longed to start afresh in “those vast and unpeopled countries of America,” as William Bradford would later write in his history, Of Plymouth Plantation. There, they could look forward to propagating and advancing “the gospel of the kingdom of Christ.”

Thirty years old when he arrived in the New World, Bradford became the second governor of Plymouth (the first died within weeks of the Mayflower’s arrival) and the most important figure in the early years of the colony. He recorded in his history the key passage on property relations in Plymouth and the way in which they were changed. His is the only surviving account of these matters.

DRIVING A HARD BARGAIN

The Pilgrims knew about the early disasters at Jamestown, but the more adventurous among them were willing to hazard the Atlantic anyway. First, however, they sent two emissaries, John Carver and Robert Cushman, from Leyden to London to seek permission to found a plantation. This was granted, but finding investors was a problem. Eventually Carver and Cushman found an investment syndicate headed by a London ironmonger named Thomas Weston. Weston and his fifty-odd investors were taking a big risk in putting up the equivalent of hundreds of thousands of dollars in today’s money. The big losses in Jamestown had scared off most “venture capital” in London.

Those waiting for news in Leyden were concerned that their agents in London would, in their eagerness to find investors, agree to unfavorable terms. Carver and Cushman were admonished “not to exceed the bounds of your commission.” They were particularly enjoined not to “entangle yourselves and us in any such unreasonable [conditions as that] the merchants should have the half of men’s houses and lands at the dividend.”

Eventually, however, Carver and Cushman did accept terms stipulating that at the end of seven years everything would be divided equally between investors and colonists. Some historians claim that those who came over on the Mayflower were exploited by capitalists. In a sense, they were. But of course they came voluntarily.

The colonists hoped that the houses they built would be exempt from the division of wealth at the end of seven years; in addition, they sought two days a week in which to work on their own “particular” plots (much as collective farmers later had their own private plots in the Soviet Union). The Pilgrims would thereby avoid servitude. But the investors refused to allow these loopholes, undoubtedly worried that if the Pilgrims—three thousand miles away and beyond the reach of supervision—owned their own houses and plots, the investors would find it difficult to collect their due. How could they be sure that the faraway colonists would spend their days working for the company if they were allowed to become private owners? With such an arrangement, rational colonists would work little on “company time,” reserving their best efforts for their own gardens and houses. Such private wealth would be exempt when the shareholders were paid off. Only by insisting that all accumulated wealth was to be “common wealth,” or placed in a common pool, could the investors feel reassured that the colonists would be working to benefit everyone, including themselves.

The investors unquestionably had profit in mind when they insisted on common property. The Pilgrims went along because they had little choice.

Those waiting in Leyden objected to this arrangement. If the Pilgrims were not permitted private dwellings, “the building of good and fair houses” would be discouraged, they wrote back to London. Robert Cushman was thus caught in a cross-fire between profit-seeking investors in London and his worried Leyden brethren, who accused him of “making conditions fitter for thieves and bondslaves than honest men.”

Cushman responded with an artful case for common ownership: “Our purpose is to build for the present such houses as, if need be, we may with little grief set afire and run away by the light. Our riches shall not be in pomp but in strength; if God send us riches we will employ them to provide more men, ships, munition, etc.”

Common ownership would also “foster communion” among the Pilgrims, he thought (wrongly). Having held discussions with the investors, who seem to have been unyielding, Cushman wanted to close the deal. So he tried to persuade his brethren not to worry about the property arrangements. Those still in Leyden remained unconvinced and unreconciled to the terms, but there was little they could do. Many had already sold their property in Holland and so had no bargaining power.

It is worth emphasizing all this because it is sometimes said that the Pilgrims in Massachusetts established a colony with common property in emulation of the early Christians. Not so. It is true that their agent Cushman used arguments that were calculated to appeal to Christians—in particular warning them against the perils of prosperity—in order to justify his acceptance of unpopular terms. No doubt he felt that a bad deal was better than none. But the investors themselves unquestionably had profit in mind when they insisted on common property. The Pilgrims went along because they had little choice.

The Pilgrims may have been “exploited,” but a greater source of hardship was the harsh environment of the North American continent. This needs to be stressed, given the tendency to regard the wealth of the United States as a product of “abundant natural resources” and the equally erroneous association of the Mayflower and those who arrived in it with the idea of privilege.

THE COMMUNAL EXPERIMENT

The Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod in November 1620 with 101 people on board. About half of them died within the first few months, probably of scurvy, pneumonia, or malnutrition. It is not easy for us to grasp the hardships that the first settlers in this country experienced, even in New England, where the native American Indians were relatively friendly.

By the spring of 1623, the population of Plymouth can have been no larger than 150. But the colony was still barely able to feed itself, and little cargo was returning for the investors in England. On one occasion newcomers found that there was no bread at all, only fish or a piece of lobster and water. “So they began to think how they might raise as much corn as they could, and obtain a better crop than they had done, that they might not still thus languish in misery,” Bradford wrote in his key passage on property.

Having tried what Bradford called the “common course and condition”—the communal stewardship of the land demanded of them by their investors—Bradford reports that the community was afflicted by an unwillingness to work, by confusion and discontent, by a loss of mutual respect, and by a prevailing sense of slavery and injustice. And this among “godly and sober men.” In short, the experiment was a failure that was endangering the health of the colony.

Historian George Langdon argues that the condition of early Plymouth was not “communism” but “an extreme form of exploitative capitalism in which all the fruits of men’s labor were shipped across the seas.” In this he echoes Samuel Eliot Morison, who claims that “it was not communism . . . but a very degrading and onerous slavery to the English capitalists that was somewhat softened.” Notice that this does not agree with the dissension that Bradford reports, however. It was between the colonists themselves that the conflicts arose, not between the colonists and the investors in London. Morison and Langdon conflate two separate problems. On the one hand, it is true that the colonists did feel “exploited” by the investors because they were eventually expected to surrender to them an undue portion of the wealth they were trying to create. It is as though they felt that they were being “taxed” too highly by their investors—at a 50 percent rate, in fact.

But there was another problem, separate from the “tax” burden. Bradford’s comments make it clear that common ownership demoralized the community far more than the tax. It was not Pilgrims laboring for investors that caused so much distress but Pilgrims laboring for other Pilgrims. Common property gave rise to internecine conflicts that were much more serious than the transatlantic ones. The industrious (in Plymouth) were forced to subsidize the slackers (in Plymouth). The strong “had no more in division of victuals and clothes” than the weak. The older men felt it disrespectful to be “equalized in labours” with the younger men.

This suggests that a form of communism was practiced at Plymouth in 1621 and 1622. No doubt this equalization of tasks was thought (at first) the only fair way to solve the problem of who should do what work in a community where there was to be no individual property: If everyone were to end up with an equal share of the property at the end of seven years, everyone should presumably do the same work throughout those seven years. The problem that inevitably arose was the formidable one of policing this division of labor: How to deal with those who did not pull their weight?

The Pilgrims had encountered the free-rider problem. Under the arrangement of communal property one might reasonably suspect that any additional effort might merely substitute for the lack of industry of others. And these “others” might well be able-bodied, too, but content to take advantage of the communal ownership by contributing less than their fair share. As we shall see, it is difficult to solve this problem without dividing property into individual or family-sized units. And this was the course of action that William Bradford wisely took.

PROPERTY IS PRIVATIZED

Bradford’s history of the colony records the decision:

At length, after much debate of things, the Governor (with the advice of the chiefest amongst them) gave way that they should set corn every man for his own particular, and in that regard trust to themselves; in all other things to go in the general way as before. And so assigned to every family a parcel of land, according to the proportion of their number.

So the land they worked was converted into private property, which brought “very good success.” The colonists immediately became responsible for their own actions (and those of their immediate families), not for the actions of the whole community. Bradford also suggests in his history that more than land was privatized.

The system became self-policing. Knowing that the fruits of his labor would benefit his own family and dependents, the head of each household was given an incentive to work harder. He could know that his additional efforts would help specific people who depended on him. In short, the division of property established a proportion or “ratio” between act and consequence. Human action is deprived of rationality without it, and work will decline sharply as a result.

Under communal land stewardship, Bradford reports, the community was afflicted by an unwillingness to work, by confusion and discontent, by a loss of mutual respect, and by a prevailing sense of slavery and injustice.

William Bradford died in 1657, having been reelected governor nearly every year. Among his books, according to the inventory of his estate, was Jean Bodin’s Six Books of a Commonweale, a work that criticized the utopianism of Plato’s Republic. In Plato’s ideal realm, private property would be abolished or curtailed and most inhabitants reduced to slavery, supervised by high-minded, ascetic guardians. Bodin said that communal property was “the mother of contention and discord” and that a commonwealth based on it would perish because “nothing can be public where nothing is private.”

Bradford felt that, in retrospect, his real-life experience of building a new society at Plymouth had confirmed Bodin’s judgment. Property in Plymouth was further privatized in the years ahead. The housing and later the cattle were assigned to separate families, and provision was made for the inheritance of wealth. The colony flourished. Plymouth Colony was absorbed into the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and in the prosperous years that lay ahead, nothing more was heard of “the common course and condition.”

Tom Bethell, a media fellow at the Hoover Institution, is senior editor for the American Spectator.

Copyright © 2012 by the Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; Front Page News
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs; pilgrims; privateproperty; thanksgiving
A classic economic lesson, which needs repeating every Thanksgiving.
1 posted on 11/22/2012 4:13:51 PM PST by Founding Father
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To: Founding Father

Yeah, baby. I dinna care how many rockets ya all fire at me. I WILL ALWAYS BE WRONG.


2 posted on 11/22/2012 4:25:32 PM PST by bigheadfred
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To: Founding Father
There are three configurations of property rights: state, communal, and private property.

Not much like that anymore when ANY government entity can lay claim to it for whatever reason.

3 posted on 11/22/2012 4:38:59 PM PST by unixfox (Abolish Slavery, Repeal The 16th Amendment!)
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To: Founding Father

There’s an argument to be made here for private property, certainly. But let’s be careful lest we advocate for Marxist “individual ownership of the means of production”. The Pilgrims signed on to work for a company, after all.


4 posted on 11/22/2012 4:56:57 PM PST by LearsFool ("Thou shouldst not have been old, till thou hadst been wise.")
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To: Founding Father; Smokin' Joe; Michigander222; PJBankard; scottjewell; ebb tide; Sirius Lee; ...
+

Freep-mail me to get on or off my pro-life and Catholic List:

Add me / Remove me

Please ping me to note-worthy Pro-Life or Catholic threads, or other threads of general interest.


5 posted on 11/22/2012 5:01:46 PM PST by narses
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To: Founding Father; Smokin' Joe; Michigander222; PJBankard; scottjewell; ebb tide; Sirius Lee; ...
+

Freep-mail me to get on or off my pro-life and Catholic List:

Add me / Remove me

Please ping me to note-worthy Pro-Life or Catholic threads, or other threads of general interest.


6 posted on 11/22/2012 5:02:10 PM PST by narses
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To: Founding Father

Here are some videos that tell the same basic story. Forward them to all of your Lefty family, friends, and acquaintances. Once they know this they’ll try and get rid of T-day as fast as possible.

John Stossel: Socialism Almost Ruined Thanksgiving
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbjpzh087uU

Thanksgiving: Overcoming Socialism
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igdCrePWTF4

Rush Limbaugh: The True Story of Thanksgiving (2010)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yfW5SgvFPY


7 posted on 11/22/2012 5:02:10 PM PST by Jack Hydrazine (It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine!)
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To: LearsFool

Sure the Pilgrims signed on to work for a company but they were compensated by how productive they could make the soil. Those that busted their buns to make more money more than likely did so. Those that sat around and did nothing didn’t get jack squat.

Goes back to that old saying:

“You don’t work, you don’t eat.”


8 posted on 11/22/2012 5:10:44 PM PST by Jack Hydrazine (It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine!)
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To: Founding Father
Bradford's musings in later years ~ instructive, but unless read carefully the reader might find himself evading the real situation on the ground ~ in the first few months they were all pretty much shellshocked from the death rate!

The Indian threat was also near at hand and they actually buried the dead secretly at night in unmarked graves so the Indians would not know how weakened they had become.

Even the names on the Mayflower compact are something Bradford wrote down years later ~ and I think one of those names is in error ~ but half the modern membership of the Mayflower Society owe their qualification to his supposed daughter who stayed back in Leyden.

Which, of course, is neither here nor there. These people all had gigantic brass cojones! Literally the largest ones in the world ~ just a few years previously the Indians a couple of hundred miles to the West had engaged in a huge war with upwards of ten thousand combatants.

With many members of their tribal warrior elites coming in at 7 feet tall, and every one of them built like professional body builders, the Pilgrims knew a few firearms weren't likely to secure their place on the continent ~ they needed some friends, and informants.

In the end the New England plan of development was reduced to the simple formula of carving out new towns adjacent to old towns ~ no pitiful helpless isolated settlers stuck off in the woods for them. They extended a well-armed and vigilent society of villages into the wilderness and conquered it all.

Things were different in New York and Pennsylvania ~ so development patterns were different.

9 posted on 11/22/2012 5:18:06 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah

Bradford was quite clear about his failures to make the colony members all work at their best, or any part thereof. He even used a whip, and reported that also failed.

Only assignment of parcels of land to be farmed by the individuals or families was successful. That assignment can be found by a simple Google search.

Private ownership and private decision making works.

Central ownership and centralized decision making fails.

‘Nuff said.


10 posted on 11/22/2012 5:41:13 PM PST by GladesGuru (In a society predicated upon freedom, it is necessary to examine principles."...the public interest)
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To: Founding Father

One FReeper (I don’t remember who) last year mentioned that the Pilgrims were influenced to establish Plymouth colony as a collective farming enterprise by the Hussites and other European groups. This is the Wiki on them which isn’t much.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussite

Does anyone here have any links to articles about more detailed info on those influenced Pilgrim thinking?


11 posted on 11/22/2012 5:50:32 PM PST by Jack Hydrazine (It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine!)
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To: Founding Father
RE :” How Private Property Saved the Pilgrims”

The (American) Indians didn't get out to vote to elect the leader who took the land from owners but gave out free abortions?

12 posted on 11/22/2012 7:49:59 PM PST by sickoflibs (How long before cry-Bohner caves to O again? They took the House for what?)
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To: Founding Father

Thank you for posting this. I have told this story many times, and lefty s always assume I made it up.


13 posted on 11/22/2012 8:40:39 PM PST by passionfruit (When illegals become legal, even they won't do the work Americans won't do)
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To: Founding Father

So nice to see that both the media and the unwashed masses celebrate (the appropriately named) Black Friday and its preparatory family pig-out rather than Thanksgiving.


14 posted on 11/22/2012 8:47:05 PM PST by QBFimi (When gunpowder speaks, beasts listen.)
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To: Founding Father
But the investors refused to allow these loopholes, undoubtedly worried that if the Pilgrims—three thousand miles away and beyond the reach of supervision—owned their own houses and plots, the investors would find it difficult to collect their due. How could they be sure that the faraway colonists would spend their days working for the company if they were allowed to become private owners? With such an arrangement, rational colonists would work little on “company time,” reserving their best efforts for their own gardens and houses. Such private wealth would be exempt when the shareholders were paid off. Only by insisting that all accumulated wealth was to be “common wealth,” or placed in a common pool, could the investors feel reassured that the colonists would be working to benefit everyone, including themselves

Of course we know better now. For one, they could have forced every colonist to be a shareholder.

15 posted on 11/23/2012 12:15:09 AM PST by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Founding Father.

Just adding to the catalog, not sending a general distribution. To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


16 posted on 11/23/2012 1:10:54 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: LearsFool

Not to give Marx credit he doesn’t deserve, but the means of production are privately owned because the individual mind is the means of production. Everything we have came from rational thought.


17 posted on 11/23/2012 5:07:08 AM PST by RWB Patriot ("My ability is a value that must be purchased and I don't recognize anyone's need as a claim on me.")
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To: RWB Patriot

Excellent insight. The hammer doesn’t build the house and neither does the muscle. It’s the mind that counts.


18 posted on 11/23/2012 5:17:21 AM PST by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Jack Hydrazine

The trouble is that in our “modern” society liberals have created “victims” that cannot work - it would be cruel.

Secondly, those “victims” can now vote themselves a meal and a home and etc. We’ve forgotten that in America the majority doesn’t rule, the Constitution does. But, school children are taught day in and day out that the Constitution is an old white man’s document.

Modernity and central planning are what government schools teach. They sugar it up with plenty of sexualization and that’s good for the teachers and professors as well.


19 posted on 11/23/2012 5:20:04 AM PST by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Founding Father

History repeats itself over and over and over again and the people who support this new age socialism have but to look to the past to see the devastating effects and conseqquent hunger and violence and death cause by those snare therein.
Is it not pthat God in Christ Jesus , having led the twelve tribes into Israel and defeating their enemies before them, gave each tribe and famild therein a piece of land to own and to nuture. It appears that the God of Israel started capitalism by private property ownership which led to the Lord’s work of building Israel into a strong nation seperate from the dictatorship of neighboring kings and nations. Lord Jesus, I thank you for creating private property ownership to inspire your people to work hard for their families and thereby increase bountiful provision from the land they tilled and lived off.

[William Bradford died in 1657, having been reelected governor nearly every year. Among his books, according to the inventory of his estate, was Jean Bodin’s Six Books of a Commonweale, a work that criticized the utopianism of Plato’s Republic. In Plato’s ideal realm, private property would be abolished or curtailed and most inhabitants reduced to slavery, supervised by high-minded, ascetic guardians. Bodin said that communal property was “the mother of contention and discord” and that a commonwealth based on it would perish because “nothing can be public where nothing is private.”

Bradford felt that, in retrospect, his real-life experience of building a new society at Plymouth had confirmed Bodin’s judgment. Property in Plymouth was further privatized in the years ahead. The housing and later the cattle were assigned to separate families, and provision was made for the inheritance of wealth. The colony flourished. Plymouth Colony was absorbed into the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and in the prosperous years that lay ahead, nothing more was heard of “the common course and condition.”]


20 posted on 11/23/2012 7:12:32 AM PST by kindred (Jesus Christ is the Lord God Messiah of Israel, a present help in time of trouble.)
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Ideally, we need every member and regular user to contribute to keep Free Republic up and running strong.

21 posted on 11/23/2012 5:20:04 PM PST by RedMDer (May we always be happy and may our enemies always know it. - Sarah Palin, 10-18-2010)
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To: Founding Father; Springfield Reformer; P-Marlowe; napscoordinator; AmericanInTokyo; cripplecreek; ..

Bookmark for later reference. PING to the Great Reformed Ping List (the Pilgrims were Calvinists, after all), and also pinging some others who may be interested.


22 posted on 11/24/2012 8:16:34 AM PST by darrellmaurina
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To: 1010RD; RWB Patriot

Of course, it is important to understand that most Marxists do not believe that, they believe that is only the muscle that builds it counts for anything.

In their world, the mind that conceived it and told others how to do it has no place.

Marxists don’t understand that mind without muscle is limited, but even worse, they don’t realize the muscle without mind is utterly worthless.


23 posted on 11/25/2012 6:26:28 AM PST by rlmorel (1793 French Jacobins and 2012 American Liberals have a lot in common.)
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To: Founding Father

book mark


24 posted on 11/25/2012 7:57:24 PM PST by Pajamajan (Pray for our nation. Thank the Lord for everything you have. Don't wait. Do it today.)
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