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Easy fix eludes power outage problems in US
The Capital ^ | By Chris Khan and Eric Tucker

Posted on 07/05/2012 4:45:55 PM PDT by robowombat

Easy fix eludes power outage problems in US Buried lines an option, but costly

By Chris Khan and Eric Tucker The Capital

WASHINGTON — In the aftermath of storms that knocked out power to millions, sweltering residents and elected officials are demanding to know why it's taking so long to restring power lines and why they're not more resilient in the first place.

The answer, it turns out, is complicated: Above-ground lines are vulnerable to lashing winds and falling trees, but relocating them underground incurs huge costs - as much as $15 million per mile of buried line - and that gets passed onto consumers.

With memories of other extended outages fresh in the minds of many of the 1.26 million customers who still lack electricity, some question whether the delivery of power is more precarious than it used to be. The storms that began Friday killed 24 people in seven states and the District of Columbia.

"It's a system that from an infrastructure point of view is beginning to age, has been aging," said Gregory Reed, a professor of electric power engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. "We haven't expanded and modernized the bulk of the transmission and distribution network."

The powerful winds that swept from the Midwest to the Mid-Atlantic late Friday, toppling trees onto power lines and knocking out transmission towers and electrical substations, have renewed debate about whether to bury lines. District of Columbia Mayor Vincent Gray was among officials calling for the change this week and was seeking to meet with the chief executive of Pepco, the city's dominant utility, to discuss what he called a slow and frustrating response.

"They obviously need to invest more in preparing for getting the power back on," said Maryland state Sen. James Rosapepe, who is among those advocating for moving lines underground. "Every time this happens, they say they're shocked - shocked that it rained or snowed or it was hot - which isn't an acceptable excuse given that we all know about climate change."

Though the newest communities do bury their power lines, many older ones have found that it's too expensive to replace existing networks. To bury power lines, utilities need to take over city streets so they can cut trenches into the asphalt, lay down plastic conduits and then the power lines. Manholes must be created to connect the lines together. The overall cost is between $5 million and $15 million per mile, according to the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., a nonprofit research and development group funded by electric utilities. Those costs get passed on to residents in the form of higher electric bills, making the idea unpalatable for many communities.

Pepco's initial estimates are that it would be a $5.8 billion project to bury power lines in D.C. and would cost customers an extra $107 per month, said Michael Maxwell, vice president of asset management.

North Carolina considered burying its lines in 2003, after a winter storm knocked out power to 2 million utility customers. The North Carolina Public Staff Utilities Commission eventually concluded it was "prohibitively expensive" and time-consuming. The project would have cost $41 billion and taken 25 years to complete - and it would have raised residential electric bills by 125 percent.

An onslaught of recent extreme weather around the country, including heat waves, wildfires and flooding, has increased strain on infrastructure already struggling to meet growing consumer demand. And some scientists predict the severe weather will only increase, though it will take time to study this year's weather before any conclusions can be drawn.

Pepco has contingency plans for dealing with severe weather like tornadoes and hurricanes and runs periodic drills in which staff go through the process of responding to mass outages. In this case, though, the hurricane-force winds lashed the region with no advance notice, creating a type of quick-hit storm that caught the utility flat-footed and for which it had not practiced, Maxwell said.

"That's going to be a very big lesson for us," he said. "We need to understand how we recover from this."

A stress index created by the North American Electric Reliability Corp., which monitors the country's power supply to annually assess its performance, shows that day-to-day performance seems to have improved, but there was an increase in high-stress days. The company counted six high-stress days in 2011, slightly more than the three preceding years. Weather was a contributing factor in nine of the 10 failures severe enough to generate a federally required report in 2011.

But utility insiders acknowledge that the math is little comfort when a customer's air conditioner fails during a triple-digit heat wave and the food spoils.

"The industry is getting better and better," said Aaron Strickland, who oversees distribution and emergency operations for Georgia Power, a subsidiary of the Atlanta-based Southern Co. "In my opinion, I think the expectations of customers are higher and higher because we depend so much on electricity. ... We expect to push that button and it works."

Still, he noted Friday's storms pummeled the region with no advance warning, and "you can't prepare for that."

"You don't see it coming," Strickland said. "It just happens."

Seth Blumsack, an assistant professor of energy policy and economics at Penn State, said utilities are making investments in transmission upgrades but "it doesn't look like blackouts are getting any less common."

"Some studies have suggested that they are getting more common," he said. "Some studies have suggested that they're happening at basically the same rate as they used to."

Though the country's power infrastructure is reliable, it was mostly built between the 1930s and 1970s and is starting to age, said Reed of the University of Pittsburgh.

Bruce Wollenberg, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Minnesota who specializes in power systems, said it's hard to tell if extended outages are more common than in years past. But the capacity for high-voltage transmission systems has not increased with demand, he said, in part because of the cost of moving power lines underground and the general distaste for having above-ground lines right outside homes.

"People don't want power lines - period ...They don't like the way they look, they don't like a lot of things," Wollenberg said. "It's universal across the country, and I think across the world. People don't want power lines. They don't want more power lines."

Residents' complaints about the latest outages have increased with their duration.

Kevin Fogg, a barber from the rural community of Jefferson, about 45 miles northwest of Washington, scoffed when asked if he'd be willing to pay Potomac Edison higher rates to prevent more outages like the one he's been suffering through.

"I think it's more than it should be already," Fogg said.

He said the utility company should do a better job of trimming trees and branches that threaten power lines.

"There's a huge, dead tree hanging over our line and they said, 'Well, we're not going to cut it down,'" Fogg said. "It's got to break first and knock the power line down before they'll do anything about it. So I guess they won't do any preventive maintenance - or at least not as much as they should."

Jean Cuseo, a middle-school art teacher from Jefferson, said she's not sure if she'd be willing to pay more to prevent outages, even if that were an option.

"I'm pretty environmentally friendly. If I could live off the grid I would," she said.

TOPICS: Business/Economy; Government; News/Current Events; US: District of Columbia; US: Maryland
KEYWORDS: electricity; electricpower; powergrid; undergroundlines
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To: SnuffaBolshevik

15 million is probably a low estimate. Underground might be fine and dandy in your subdivision, but transmission lines are another thing. No way are you going through mountains and valleys underground

41 posted on 07/05/2012 9:01:38 PM PDT by Figment
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To: Figment

Maybe I missed it but I don’t think they are talking about putting high tension underground. Around here, the power companies take pretty good care of the tower lines as far as tree incursion and maintenance of way goes.

The overhead residential lines are the ones neglected when it comes to trees. I still say $15 mil a mile is BS for putting medium voltage (~13kv.) underground.

42 posted on 07/05/2012 9:36:30 PM PDT by SnuffaBolshevik (In a tornado, even turkeys can fly.)
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To: SampleMan

The tree line is cut about fifty yards either side of the power lines. It would take a damned tall tree to take one out by falling, but they do become debris in a windstorm

43 posted on 07/05/2012 10:42:57 PM PDT by Figment
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To: BobL

And then there is the matter of burying the lines to the each house, which is a personal expense, and also expensive.

Burying pre-existing lines is expensive, but doing it from the very beginning isn’t too bad.

All of the new developments here have the lines buried.

44 posted on 07/06/2012 4:57:05 AM PDT by SampleMan (Feral Humans are the refuse of socialism.)
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To: SampleMan

Yea, when you get to those voltages underground isn’t much worse than above ground. But like you say, the above-ground infrastructure is there in most of the country - so it will be very costly to move them underground.

45 posted on 07/06/2012 5:09:07 AM PDT by BobL
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To: SampleMan

It’s the old question:

Do you believe in higher taxes to help the homeless? Answer: Sure, we need to do what we can to pull them out of their situation.

Would you be willing to pay higher taxes to help the homeless? NO WAY!!! The government steals enough of my money already.

Sure, people want reliable power, as long as they don’t have to pay for it. What should be done is a serious cost-benefit study of options. Maybe doubling the size of the truck fleet and clearing trees more often and with wider berths would help a lot, and not cost too much. And then that fleet could also respond to outages much more effectively. That is one option.

46 posted on 07/06/2012 5:21:06 AM PDT by BobL
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To: BobL

Yes, I concur.

I appears here locally (no rock to deal with) that the cost/benefit is hit when the lines can be dropped in before building begins in a new neiborhood.

The other cost is that electrical is not the only line hanging on those poles. Cable TV and telephone lines must also be put underground and they cannot all be put together inside one conduit, due to interference and differing responsibilities.

As nice as underground lines are, I’m not willing to pay the 20k required to do it (just on my property, nor would I be willing to vote to force someone else to do it, even if I was willing to spend the money.

47 posted on 07/06/2012 5:29:49 AM PDT by SampleMan (Feral Humans are the refuse of socialism.)
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To: SnuffaBolshevik

Just looking at what’s running above ground in my neighborhood, it would be a freaking nightmare to do it

48 posted on 07/06/2012 9:13:44 AM PDT by Figment
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