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Science and the Republican Brain
The American Magazine ^ | April 30, 2012 | Lee Harris

Posted on 04/30/2012 2:21:50 PM PDT by neverdem

The so-called Republican brain, with its deep resistance to yielding before mere scientific evidence, has played an indispensable role in the making of modern science, long before the emergence of the Grand Old Party.

A new term of political opprobrium has been loosed upon the world: anti-science. Like many terms of abuse, it is easier to convey its meaning by an illustration than by a rigorous definition. For example, “If those damn Republicans weren’t so anti-science, we might have a chance of dealing with global warming.” Here’s another example: “Those damn Republicans are so anti-science that they want to see creationism taught in schools.”

As these two examples show, anti-science is a phenomenon that is mainly found among Republicans. Indeed, according to Chris Mooney’s new book, The Republican Brain: The Science of Why They Deny Science—and Reality, the Republican penchant for denying science is so pronounced and marvelous a phenomenon that in order to grasp it we must turn to the latest revelations of neuroscience.

The source of the problem, Mooney tells us, lies in the Republican brain itself. It is not that Republicans have smaller brains. Their brains can be just as big as or even bigger than those possessed by Democrats. But Republicans are hard-wired to have an insatiable craving for certitude. They ferociously resist any evidence that might force them to change their deep-seated convictions. Liberals, on the other hand, are more open-minded and tolerant of uncertainty, just like scientists themselves.

The history of science teaches us that the scientific consensus of today is no more immune to future scientific revolutions than the scientific consensus of the past.

You don’t need rocket science—or neuroscience, for that matter—to get the gist of Mooney’s argument. Conservatives wouldn’t be conservatives if they liked change; liberals wouldn’t be liberal unless they did. This neatly explains why conservatives hate to change their minds, while liberals simply love to. Indeed, some liberals have changed their minds on so many issues so often that they finally got sick and tired of it all and have turned into conservatives from simple exhaustion.

Yet even if all this is true, what does it have to do with science? Does the mere refusal to change your mind make you anti-science?

Consider the case of Charles Darwin. He refused to change his mind about his theory of natural selection even when the greatest physicist of his day, Lord Kelvin, offered irrefutable evidence that the earth simply could not have been as old as Darwin’s theory required it to be. In the face of this overwhelming fact, did Darwin do the liberal thing and change his mind? No. He held on tenaciously to his hopelessly discredited theory, another tragic victim of Republican brain syndrome.

It is irrelevant that Lord Kelvin’s irrefutable evidence turned out to be not so irrefutable. Darwin’s theory was saved by the discovery of nuclear energy, but Darwin could not have anticipated that any more than Lord Kelvin could. By challenging the scientific consensus of his day, Darwin’s persistence in arguing for his pet theory might be put forward as a flagrant example of anti-science.

By challenging the scientific consensus of his day, Darwin’s persistence in arguing for his pet theory might be put forward as a flagrant example of anti-science.

Indeed, we can take this one step further. If anti-science means challenging the scientific consensus of one’s own epoch, then all the great scientists of the past have been anti-science. As the historian and philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn has demonstrated, every scientific revolution begins by overturning the dominant scientific paradigm of its time. According to Kuhn, those who adhere to the old paradigm never actually change their minds. Instead, they (and their Republican brains) simply die off, making place for the followers of the new paradigm, who will cling with Republican brain tenacity to the new scientific creed.

Needless to say, this is not the popular image of how scientists behave, but one main purpose of Kuhn’s ground-breaking work was to shatter the unsophisticated ideas about science and the scientific method that are prevalent in our pop culture, and to which Chris Mooney appeals in his book. A willingness to change your mind because the facts have changed may be an admirable quality, but, fortunately for us all, this is not how real scientists have behaved.

Of course, simply challenging the dominant scientific paradigm of the day does not necessarily make you a great scientist. It may simply make you a crackpot. Every inventor of a perpetual motion machine, for example, is trying to disprove Lord Kelvin’s laws of thermodynamics, just as today’s creationists are intent on disproving Darwin. Surely we are entitled to call such crackpots anti-science, aren’t we?

This is certainly tempting, but there is a serious problem with classifying all crackpots as anti-science. More than once in the history of science, the crackpot of one generation has been hailed as a visionary by the next. Indeed, during the seminal period marked by a major paradigm shift, it is often impossible to distinguish the pseudo-scientific crackpot from the genuine scientific revolutionary.

If anti-science means challenging the scientific consensus of one’s own epoch, then all the great scientists of the past have been anti-science.

Take the example of Johannes Kepler, who was both. During his lifetime, Kepler was courted by the high and mighty for his mastery of the arcane pseudo-science of astrology. It is hard to get more anti-science than that. Yet today Kepler is honored as one of the most important contributors to the advance of modern astronomy, though, even in this respect, Kepler remained a bit of a crackpot. To understand his ambiguous role, we must first go back to Copernicus and his great scientific revolution.

When Copernicus made his daring conjecture placing the sun at the center of the then known universe, he had only half-dispelled the old Ptolemaic paradigm. Copernicus made the earth revolve around the sun, along with the other planets, but he could not shake off the Platonic fixation with perfect circles that had been embodied in the Ptolemaic system. In Copernicus’s new astronomy, the earth and planets might revolve around the sun, but they still had to revolve in perfect circles. The reason for this seemed quite obvious at the time. Because there was an infinite number of different oval shapes, God, the designer of the universe, had no reason to pick one particular oval shape over another. He would have needed to resort to a process that involved arbitrary choice, for example, by going “eeny, meeny, miny, moe” among the possible elliptical orbits. But for Copernicus, just as for Einstein, God did not play dice. Therefore, God would stick to perfect circles, since this was the only rational choice He could make.

Kepler disagreed. It was not that he thought God played dice, any more than Copernicus did. There was still an intelligent design behind the orbit of the planets, but it was not quite as obvious as everyone had supposed. Going back again to Plato, Kepler discovered that the key to deciphering the mystery of the cosmos lay not in perfect circles, but in three-dimensional polyhedrons known as Platonic solids: The octahedron, the icosahedron, the dodecahedron, the tetrahedron, and the cube. These were the ideal models that God had relied upon in laying down the orbits of the then known planets.

You don’t have to understand anything about polyhedrons in order to sense that there was something a bit crackpot in Kepler’s reasoning. After all, we are taught that scientists are supposed to look at empirical evidence, not attempt to fathom the inner workings of the mind of God. Yet historians of science recognize that Kepler’s far-fetched theorizing marked an enormous breakthrough. Having broken the spell of the perfect circle, the path was now open to permitting the planets to revolve around the sun in different ellipses. Modern astronomy was finally up and running, thanks to Kepler’s crackpot polyhedrons.

More than once in the history of science, the crackpot of one generation has been hailed as a visionary by the next.

The importance of this step cannot be overestimated. Before Kepler, the Copernican revolution seemed doomed to failure. This was not simply because the Church opposed it, but because it flunked the first challenge that a new scientific theory must face in order to gain general acceptance: It must explain and predict observable phenomena better than its rival. When it came to predicting eclipses and other signal astronomical data, however, the old Ptolemaic system, with its elaborate multitude of epicycles, did a better job than the Copernican model. If good scientists are supposed to change their minds when confronted with evidence that goes against their own theory, then the proponents of the Copernican system should have changed theirs. But they didn’t. Like Darwin, they held on tenaciously to their preferred model, despite the scientific evidence against it.

In short, the so-called Republican brain, with its deep resistance to yielding before mere scientific evidence, has played an indispensable role in the making of modern science, long before the emergence of the Grand Old Party in 1856. This fact, however, has been obscured for most of us because of the way in which we learn science in our classrooms.

As children, we are able to make quick progress in mastering science because we can skip over all the mistakes and errors that scientists have made in the past. We can ignore the messy history of science and go directly to the latest scientific consensus without retracing the circuitous path by which it was ultimately obtained. This approach has obvious pedagogical advantages, but it can also lead to an erroneous view of science as a finished product, instead of an endlessly evolving project.

Modern astronomy was finally up and running, thanks to Kepler's crackpot polyhedrons.

To see the difference this makes, imagine two different classrooms. In the first, the children are introduced to the fabulous Mr. Scientific Truth. The teacher explains that Mr. Scientific Truth has never once been wrong in his whole life, and that every word that drops from his mouth is true beyond any conjecture of doubt. In the second class, the children are introduced to Mr. Latest Scientific Consensus. The teacher explains that Mr. Latest Scientific Consensus has been wrong over and over again, and even now, he is still not at all confident that he has gotten all the right answers. While there are some truths that he is pretty sure of, there are others about which he cannot quite make up his mind. Furthermore, Mr. L. S. Consensus is subject to having fits in which he completely reverses his previous opinion, a recurrent malady known as paradigm shifting, so that it is entirely possible that he may come back tomorrow and tell you that everything he taught the day before was wrong.

Now, if you were a child with an innate craving for certitude, would you rather be taught by Mr. Scientific Truth, whose every word could be trusted, or Mr. Latest Scientific Consensus, who is forever changing his mind? Obviously, you would want Mr. Scientific Truth. But what if someone suggested that Mr. Latest Scientific Consensus was the better teacher, precisely because he was not so cocksure of himself? No doubt you would take great offense at such a statement. You might even decide to use the harsh epithet of “anti-science” to describe someone who questioned the authority of Mr. Scientific Truth.

It would be unfair to say that only liberals (or Democrats) are taken in by the extravagant claims of Mr. Scientific Truth, but the moment you hear someone attacked for being anti-science, you can be certain that the person making this charge is a true believer in the teachings of that rank charlatan, Mr. Scientific Truth. Belief in the infallibility of the latest scientific consensus may be useful in the process of learning about science when we are children, but the history of science teaches us that the scientific consensus of today is no more immune to future scientific revolutions than the scientific consensus of the past. To label as anti-science anyone who is skeptical of the current scientific consensus may be a clever political stunt, but it betrays a hopelessly naïve idea of the nature of science. The real enemy of science is not the skeptic, but the true believer.

Lee Harris is the author of The Next American Civil War, Civilization and Its Enemies, and The Suicide of Reason.

FURTHER READING: Harris also writes “Why ObamaCare Has Proved a Hard Sell,” “More than Just Broccoli: The Real Slippery Slope of ObamaCare’s ‘Must-Buy’ Provision,” and “Double Talk about Double Standards.” Michael Barone says “Colleges Skimp on Science, Spend Big on Diversity.” Jon Entine discusses “Killing Drilling With Farcical 'Science'” and “Geoengineering: Crackpot Capitalism or Climate-Saving Science?

Image by Rob Green / Bergman Group



TOPICS: Constitution/Conservatism; Crime/Corruption; Editorial; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: astronomy; catastrophism; godsgravesglyphs; kepler; republicanbrain; science; stringtheory; xplanets
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1 posted on 04/30/2012 2:21:57 PM PDT by neverdem
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To: neverdem

“deep resistance to yielding before mere scientific evidence”

More like resistant to yielding to fake science paid for, compromised and coerced by leftist Democrats


2 posted on 04/30/2012 2:26:43 PM PDT by RatRipper (I'll ride a turtle to work every day before I buy anything from Government Motors.)
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To: neverdem; Carry_Okie; BufordP
The source of the problem, Mooney tells us, lies in the Republican brain itself. It is not that Republicans have smaller brains. Their brains can be just as big as or even bigger than those possessed by Democrats. But Republicans are hard-wired to have an insatiable craving for certitude. They ferociously resist any evidence that might force them to change their deep-seated convictions. Liberals, on the other hand, are more open-minded and tolerant of uncertainty, just like scientists themselves.

I just spit all over my monitor.

3 posted on 04/30/2012 2:28:07 PM PDT by sauropod (You can elect your very own tyranny - Mark Levin)
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To: neverdem
The history of science teaches us that the scientific consensus...

And there lies the problem. Science is not based on whether or not a bunch of people agree or feel they have the correct answer, it is based on FACT.

4 posted on 04/30/2012 2:32:22 PM PDT by Drill Thrawl (The United States of America, a banana republic since 1913)
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To: neverdem

Cotton Mather, Puritan/Amateur Scientist


5 posted on 04/30/2012 2:35:00 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: neverdem

File under “There is such a thing as being too clever for one’s own good,” or “Waiting for plain English summary,” simply under “Unread.”


6 posted on 04/30/2012 2:38:00 PM PDT by x
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To: RatRipper

Just because a consortium of leftists and anti-Christs say it’s so, doesn’t make it so, neither is it science.

Their shrill ad hominems only serve to convince the rest of us that they are agenda-driven, NOT fact driven.


7 posted on 04/30/2012 2:40:40 PM PDT by Westbrook (Children do not divide your love, they multiply it.)
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To: neverdem
Liberals, on the other hand, are more open-minded and tolerant of uncertainty, just like scientists themselves.

Yep, they're so open-minded that their brains fell out.

8 posted on 04/30/2012 2:42:13 PM PDT by Traveler59 ( Truth is a journey, not a destination.)
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To: neverdem; All

It was “Science’ like this that brought us the liberal, politically-correct concept of EUGENICS, or Scientific Racism, and that it was OK to murder people because they were ‘inferior’ to you.

It’s important to remember that the 20th Century idea of Eugenics, which has killed MILLIONS, began in AMERICA, by Northeast RICH LIBERALS, who thought they were doing the world a favor, by ridding it of it’s ‘undesirable’ elements.


9 posted on 04/30/2012 2:44:27 PM PDT by tcrlaf (Election 2012: THE RAPTURE OF THE DEMOCRATS)
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To: neverdem

And the latest research that windmill farms cause localized climate warming...... bwahahahahahahha. Stupid liberal do gooders


10 posted on 04/30/2012 2:44:27 PM PDT by Nifster
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To: neverdem
The differences between conservatives & liberals are simple.

Conservatives are leery of fad-science (snake oil) when common sense says otherwise. Same for fad-legislation.

Liberals ignore or have no common sense, & are emotionally swayed by pretty faces & smooth talking hucksters. They may have good hearts, but they are poor problem solvers.

11 posted on 04/30/2012 2:52:56 PM PDT by Mister Da (The mark of a wise man is not what he knows, but what he knows he doesn't know!)
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To: Mister Da

“Crazy religious extremist” Cotton Mather encouraged the first experiments with smallpox inoculation in the new world.

http://www.celebrateboston.com/first/inoculation.htm

Mather also conducted some of the first known corn hybridization experiments.


12 posted on 04/30/2012 2:58:06 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: neverdem
Before Kepler, the Copernican revolution seemed doomed to failure. This was not simply because the Church opposed it, but because it flunked the first challenge that a new scientific theory must face in order to gain general acceptance: It must explain and predict observable phenomena better than its rival.

And here it is Global Warming in a nutshell. It cannot explain nor predict observable phenomena (unless you juggle the numbers, browbeat skeptics, and fake the results).

13 posted on 04/30/2012 3:16:31 PM PDT by Traveler59 ( Truth is a journey, not a destination.)
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To: neverdem

This is a stupid argument, and is best avoided altogether. You’d tend to think that by being more religious and more generally old-fashioned, conservatives would be more “anti-science.” But this is the same sort of nonsense that caused Richard Hofstadter to call conservatives “anti-intellectuals” just because the intellectual class happened right then to be majority leftist.

Firstly, religious anti-science is vastly overrated. But let’s assume the lib case against supposed Bible-thumpers is sound. Who else doesn’t like Darwin? Libs, duh. Start digging into evolution, and you are immediately confronted with all manner of leftist horrors, from Malthusiansism to unavoidable gender differences, rationalizations of rape and racism, and worst of all inherent human nature.

Ever want to blow a liberal’s top, bring up Social Darwinism. Listen, if you can, while he screams at laissez faire, the struggle for existence, and survival of the fittest. Not that Darwinism correctly construed necessarily insists on these things. Overreliance on biological metaphors in political philosophy is a case of scientism (the misapplication of science in non-scientific settings), not science. Then again, I wonder why liberals are allowed to object to the invocation of Darwin as scientism, whereas when conservatives object to use of Darwin it’s anti-science.

I haven’t mentioned yet enviornmentalists, though by rights I should have started and ended there. Check liberals on how well they respect atomic physics, for instance. See how they react to what according to how we define other things ought to overwhelmingly be considered a conservative movement: romanticism. See how they react to Wordsworth, Ruskin, or Malthus for that matter (at least as regards specifically environmental problems, not his solutions).

Read a little post-modernism, deconstruction, poststructuralism, and so on. Tell me who’s anti-science.


14 posted on 04/30/2012 3:24:34 PM PDT by Tublecane
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To: neverdem
Liberals, on the other hand, are more open-minded and tolerant of uncertainty, just like scientists themselves.

They're not open-minded, they're empty-minded.

15 posted on 04/30/2012 3:33:32 PM PDT by rockrr (Everything is different now...)
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To: rockrr

Try to tell liberals that science says men’s and women’s brains work differently.

Try to tell liberals that science can’t say homosexuals aren’t “born that way.”

Found this old thread:
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1300464/posts


16 posted on 04/30/2012 3:45:54 PM PDT by Right Wing Assault (Dick Obama is more inexperienced now than he was before he was elected.)
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To: neverdem

This is a slight variation on the “Republicans and Conservatives are STOOPID” falsememe going around the so-called scientific elite.


17 posted on 04/30/2012 3:55:58 PM PDT by Lazamataz (Admin Moderator refuses to let me hit it. -- http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2875871/posts)
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To: sauropod
This guy is definitely a crackpot. Darwinian evolution is bunk. I saw 2001: A Space Odyssey. It was a monolith created man.
18 posted on 04/30/2012 4:53:03 PM PDT by BufordP ("Drink me if you can't take a joke." --Kool-Aid)
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To: neverdem

Let me just say that this guy seems to only have a loose grasp of what science is. A person who is reasonably educated about science has no difficulty discerning science quackery from real science, but this guy doesn’t seem to have that ability, or to acknowledge that anyone has that ability.

Nothing else he said makes sense, either. If you take his word, there are no conservative scientists—and that simply is not true! Science is way too logical and methodical for extreme leftists, who detest its rationality. Liberal scientists tend to think more rationally than their colleagues in the social “sciences”. If anything, it seems there is a preponderance of libertarian scientists, although I do run into quite a few fellow conservatives.


19 posted on 05/01/2012 2:48:06 AM PDT by exDemMom (Now that I've finally accepted that I'm living a bad hair life, I'm more at peace with the world.)
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To: exDemMom
Let me just say that this guy seems to only have a loose grasp of what science is.

Which guy, Lee Harris or Chris Mooney?

20 posted on 05/01/2012 4:29:50 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
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