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GLOBAL TEAM OF PHYSICISTS UPENDS STANDARD MODEL WITH DISCOVERY OF NEUTRINO OSCILLATION, MASS
Boston University ^ | 08 July 2004 | News release staff

Posted on 07/09/2004 12:20:53 PM PDT by PatrickHenry

A team of nearly 100 physicists from around the world have achieved results verifying that the elementary particle known as the neutrino exhibits a distinctive pattern of oscillation. This discovery shows that it is likely that the Standard Model, proposed in the 1970s to describe the fundamental forces and particles that make up all matter, is incomplete. The findings provide the needed confirmation to their previous discovery of neutrino oscillation and give the most precise measurement yet of neutrino mass.

“These findings show that the Standard Model needs to be modified to better explain the fundamental forces that make up all matter,” says James Stone, a professor of physics at Boston University. “They clear the field of all other explanations for the earlier results.”

Stone and his collaborators are part of the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, a Japan-based project that involves researchers from more than 30 institutions worldwide. Stone serves as co-principal investigator for the “Super-K” experiment as well as being a member of the experiment’s Executive Committee and co-spokesperson for the participating U.S. researchers. The results of the collaboration’s efforts will be published next month in Physical Review Letters.

The Super-K collaboration’s new analysis focused on atmospheric neutrino data. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced by high-energy collisions of cosmic rays with Earth’s upper atmosphere. The neutrinos come in two types, or “flavors,” called electron-type and muon-type.

The Super-K group first reported that neutrinos oscillated in 1998. This discovery grew from their observation that the number of upward-going muon-neutrinos (those traveling the full distance through Earth) was considerably fewer than the number of downward-going muon-neutrinos (those that traveled only the “short” distance from the upper atmosphere to the underground Super-K detector). In their report, the researchers show that the size of the measured difference depends on the distance traveled in a way that is consistent with the theory of neutrino oscillation. Their full analysis of the data shows the muon-neutrino most likely changes into a third flavor of neutrino, the tau-neutrino, which is not produced in cosmic-ray collisions.

According to the neutrino mixing theory of the Standard Model, the probability that a neutrino of one flavor changes to another can be determined by dividing the distance a neutrino travels (L) by its energy (E). The distinctive, sinusoidal pattern described by the theory says that the probability of a flavor change dips toward zero and then recovers as the L/E ratio increases.

The Super-K physicists invented a new method for this analysis of atmospheric neutrino data, one that used only those neutrino “events” that had very good measurements of travel distance and neutrino energy. This is an improvement over the 1998 analysis. In that analysis, the distinctive oscillatory pattern had been washed out because many of the events had poor travel distance and neutrino energy measurements. In this newly reported analysis, each selected event was assigned a well-defined L and E value, and the number of neutrino events was studied as a function of the ratio L/E. Analysis of data gathered using this improved technique shows a prominent dip at a value of L/E that is consistent with the theory of neutrino mixing.

Theoretically, neutrinos can change from one flavor to another only if they have mass. The Standard Model, however, assumes neutrinos are without mass. Thus, the 1998 discovery of neutrino oscillation was also the first evidence that neutrinos have mass. A few unusual theories, however, had offered explanations for the “loss” of upward-going muon neutrinos that differed from the 1998 conclusion of the Super-K group. Instead of determining that the deficit indicated that muon-neutrinos changed to a new flavor, these theories noted that the deficit was likely the result of neutrino decay to other particles.

The new analysis by the Super-K collaboration rejects these theories on the basis that they fail to predict the oscillatory pattern found in the 1998 analysis. In addition, the recent analysis finds that the location of the dip in the oscillatory pattern shows the mass difference between the neutrinos. It is the most precise measurement yet of that difference in mass.

The Super-Kamiokande collaboration, which includes scientists from institutions in Japan, the United States, and Korea, is funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture; the United States Department of Energy; and the National Science Foundation.

The Physics Department at Boston University provides opportunities for research in experimental high-energy physics and astrophysics, experimental medium-energy physics, experimental condensed-matter physics and polymer physics, molecular biophysics, theoretical high-energy particle physics and cosmology, and theoretical condensed-matter physics, polymer physics, and statistical mechanics.

Note to editors: A copy of the Physical Review Letters paper describing these findings can be found HERE.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Miscellaneous; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: crevolist; electricsun; neutrino; neutrinodetector; neutrinos; physics; science; stringtheory
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This is unlikely to be a long thread, but anything that affects the Standard Model is probably important.
1 posted on 07/09/2004 12:20:54 PM PDT by PatrickHenry
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To: VadeRetro; jennyp; Junior; longshadow; RadioAstronomer; Physicist; LogicWings; Doctor Stochastic; ..
Science list Ping! This is an elite subset of the Evolution list.
See the list's description in my freeper homepage. Then FReepmail me to be added or dropped.
2 posted on 07/09/2004 12:22:01 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: PatrickHenry

I skimmed the headline, saw the "Bostob" dateline, and saw the "Super-K" term in the article, and figured it was a "Physicists for Kerry" press release..


3 posted on 07/09/2004 12:23:09 PM PDT by ken5050 (We've looked for WMD in Iraq for LESS time than Hillary looked for the Rose Law firm billing records)
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To: PatrickHenry

Neutrinos have mass?

I'm burning my books.


4 posted on 07/09/2004 12:24:02 PM PDT by headsonpikes (Spirit of '76 bttt!)
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To: PatrickHenry
“These findings show that the Standard Model needs to be modified

To the Deluxe Model?

5 posted on 07/09/2004 12:25:19 PM PDT by talleyman (E=mc2 (before taxes))
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Comment #6 Removed by Moderator

To: PatrickHenry

If the neutrino has mass, that would explain why 2/3 seem to be missing in some of the experiments. (I'll go give "Herr Auge" a pat on the way out today.)


7 posted on 07/09/2004 12:26:14 PM PDT by Doctor Stochastic (Vegetabilisch = chaotisch is der Charakter der Modernen. - Friedrich Schlegel)
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To: PatrickHenry
I have been telling these people this for years!

Tau-Neutrino BUMP!

8 posted on 07/09/2004 12:27:35 PM PDT by mattdono (To President Reagan: Rest now. Look in on us. Enjoy eternity. I'll see you again some day.)
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To: PatrickHenry

Good. I always thought it was bogus. Too complicated; the truth has to be simple. I'm betting within our lifetimes electromagnetism will be shown to be the same thing as gravity.


9 posted on 07/09/2004 12:28:01 PM PDT by Flightdeck (Procrastinate later)
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To: GWTexan

"I've always believed neutrinos and even photons have some level of mass, if planck levels.. Probably means that even they don't truly travel at the speed of 'light', but just under the absolute."

Ok... and if photons have mass and don't travel at the speed of light, and a lightwave is comprised of photons, then light doesn't travel at the speed of light? :)


10 posted on 07/09/2004 12:31:32 PM PDT by brownsfan (Build a man a fire, he'll be warm for a day. Set a man on fire, he'll be warm the rest of his life.)
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To: PatrickHenry

Version 3.01 coming soon.


11 posted on 07/09/2004 12:36:29 PM PDT by razorback-bert
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To: brownsfan

Re: Your tag line.

Give a man a fish and he’ll eat for a day.
Teach a man to fish and he’ll sit in the boat all day drinking beer.


12 posted on 07/09/2004 12:36:55 PM PDT by tractorman
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To: PatrickHenry

Strange things ar afoot at the Super-K.


13 posted on 07/09/2004 12:38:42 PM PDT by Big Giant Head ( < What stupid thing are we going to do today, Brain?>)
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To: PatrickHenry

Thanks for the ping!


14 posted on 07/09/2004 12:40:15 PM PDT by Alamo-Girl
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To: PatrickHenry
The findings...give the most precise measurement yet of neutrino mass....In addition, the recent analysis finds that the location of the dip in the oscillatory pattern shows the mass difference between the neutrinos. It is the most precise measurement yet of that difference in mass....

It would be nice if the press release writer could have put some number to these "precise" measurements. It is my understanding that prior work has set a very low value for any possible neutrino mass. Also, IIUC, any mass attributed to neutrinos cannot contribute appreciably to the "dark" matter deficit.

15 posted on 07/09/2004 12:41:27 PM PDT by Faraday
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To: PatrickHenry; Physicist
Um, OK, but, then ... what is the mass of a neutrino?
16 posted on 07/09/2004 12:43:00 PM PDT by jennyp (Edwards & Kerry: Liberal & Liberaler)
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To: PatrickHenry
. This discovery shows that it is likely that the Standard Model, proposed in the 1970s to describe the fundamental forces and particles that make up all matter, is incomplete.

HAH! Changing the goal posts again, EH evil scientists?!?! Did you ever stop to wonder, that maybe, just MAYBE, if you weren't such heathen sinning swine, that the real souce of all forces and particles would be obvious?!?!

ALL the way down, fools!

17 posted on 07/09/2004 12:43:55 PM PDT by Shryke (Never retreat. Never explain. Get it done and let them howl.)
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To: Faraday
It would be nice if the press release writer could have put some number to these "precise" measurements. It is my understanding that prior work has set a very low value for any possible neutrino mass. Also, IIUC, any mass attributed to neutrinos cannot contribute appreciably to the "dark" matter deficit.

That omission bothers me too. I'd like to know the cosmological implications of neutrion mass.

18 posted on 07/09/2004 12:44:28 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: PatrickHenry
neutrion mass.

Fumble. I meant neutrino mass.

19 posted on 07/09/2004 12:45:50 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: PatrickHenry

Big changes are coming. Yesterday it was that the galaxies near the beginning were already too mature for the time they had to evolve. What a great time to be an undergrad studying physics!


20 posted on 07/09/2004 12:48:19 PM PDT by RightWhale (Withdraw from the 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty and establish property rights)
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To: Shryke

21 posted on 07/09/2004 12:48:36 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: Doctor Stochastic; PatrickHenry; jennyp

Neutrinos have mass. This has been known since it was discovered that the neutrinos from the sun change "flavor". This solved the missing neutrino problem.


22 posted on 07/09/2004 12:48:58 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: RadioAstronomer

Do you have to wait 24 hrs before filing a missing neutron mass report?


23 posted on 07/09/2004 12:51:24 PM PDT by Doctor Stochastic (Vegetabilisch = chaotisch is der Charakter der Modernen. - Friedrich Schlegel)
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To: PatrickHenry
I liked the old Super-K better. (Vol. 1)

24 posted on 07/09/2004 12:52:34 PM PDT by evets (God bless president George W. Bush)
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To: RightWhale
What a great time to be an undergrad studying physics!

Better to have studied a century ago. In 1904, before relativity, QM, nuclear physics and the big bang, at least you felt that you had a good grasp of things.
</Luddite mode>

25 posted on 07/09/2004 12:53:12 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: PatrickHenry
A rather hyperbolic headline, considering this statement:

The Super-K group first reported that neutrinos oscillated in 1998.

26 posted on 07/09/2004 12:56:29 PM PDT by Physicist
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To: PatrickHenry
'Ey! If you'd been listening, you'd know that nintendos pass through everything.

Everything.

27 posted on 07/09/2004 12:58:18 PM PDT by Tealc
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To: jennyp
Um, OK, but, then ... what is the mass of a neutrino?

Can't tell. The oscillation measurement is only sensitive to the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrino flavors.

28 posted on 07/09/2004 12:58:41 PM PDT by Physicist
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To: Physicist

Curious headline since the solar neutrino missing mass problem was solved a while back. They already knew neutrinos have mass. I am a bit puzzled by this "revelation".


29 posted on 07/09/2004 1:12:15 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: Doctor Stochastic
Do you have to wait 24 hrs before filing a missing neutron mass report?

Indeed! :-)

Then you see pictures of them on the sides of milk cartons.

30 posted on 07/09/2004 1:13:54 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: RadioAstronomer

So that's what those little tiny dots are.


31 posted on 07/09/2004 1:16:17 PM PDT by Doctor Stochastic (Vegetabilisch = chaotisch is der Charakter der Modernen. - Friedrich Schlegel)
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To: Physicist
The oscillation measurement is only sensitive to the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrino flavors.

You win. My head exploded after reading that.


32 posted on 07/09/2004 1:16:55 PM PDT by Shryke (Never retreat. Never explain. Get it done and let them howl.)
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To: PatrickHenry

Bertrand Russell ping.


33 posted on 07/09/2004 1:20:11 PM PDT by Henk
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To: headsonpikes
Neutrinos have mass?

Not only so, but they apparently have different "flavors." While you're burning your books you might as well have a little barbeque.

34 posted on 07/09/2004 1:23:14 PM PDT by Fester Chugabrew
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To: Doctor Stochastic

ROTFLMAO! :-)


35 posted on 07/09/2004 1:24:31 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: Physicist
A rather hyperbolic headline ...

I don't write the headlines. All I do is post the stuff, and then wait for you to explain it to us.

36 posted on 07/09/2004 1:30:04 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: Tealc

"Super-Kamiokande collaboration" does sound like a Nintendo game...

New SG-1 tonight, as you probably know given your handle.


37 posted on 07/09/2004 1:36:58 PM PDT by ThinkDifferent
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To: PatrickHenry

Great graphic...

Turtles all the way down!!


Thanks for the ping.


38 posted on 07/09/2004 1:40:44 PM PDT by edwin hubble
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To: headsonpikes

That's is the problem with those in science that have derision towards those of religion. They always have, currently are, and always will be adjusting their idea of the big picture. It will never come into focus until they focus on the creator.


39 posted on 07/09/2004 1:45:09 PM PDT by ImaGraftedBranch (Liberals are evidence that Satan is very active in this world)
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To: edwin hubble; Shryke
Turtles all the way down!!

The Standard [Turtle] Model.

40 posted on 07/09/2004 1:53:54 PM PDT by PatrickHenry (Hic amor, haec patria est.)
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To: PatrickHenry; edwin hubble
Ahem, my graphic was of a real object, not some false, repeated sinner-turtle. Hrmph.
41 posted on 07/09/2004 1:57:13 PM PDT by Shryke (Never retreat. Never explain. Get it done and let them howl.)
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To: jennyp; PatrickHenry
Um, OK, but, then ... what is the mass of a neutrino?

The square root of the unladen airspeed of a swallow (expressed in furlongs/fortnight).

42 posted on 07/09/2004 1:59:06 PM PDT by Poohbah ("Mister Gorbachev, TEAR DOWN THIS WALL!" -- President Ronald Reagan, Berlin, 1987)
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To: Tealc

Excellent!!

Say, Jack looks a bit pensive in that picture.


43 posted on 07/09/2004 1:59:48 PM PDT by GeraldP ("Non-violence never solved anything." - Homer)
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To: Poohbah

Yes, but don't forget to factor in drag for each coconut carried.


44 posted on 07/09/2004 2:15:42 PM PDT by Dead Corpse (For an Evil Super Genius, you aren't too bright are you?)
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To: PatrickHenry

Sniff..... Ol RA is left out in the cold once again!


45 posted on 07/09/2004 2:16:15 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: brownsfan
"I've always believed neutrinos and even photons have some level of mass, if planck levels..

Pirated neutrino's must walk the planck! Harrr!

46 posted on 07/09/2004 2:16:27 PM PDT by talleyman (E =mc2 (before taxes))
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To: Dead Corpse
Yes, but don't forget to factor in drag for each coconut carried.

Note that the swallow is unladen.

But you do have to factor in whether it's English or African...

47 posted on 07/09/2004 2:17:09 PM PDT by Poohbah ("Mister Gorbachev, TEAR DOWN THIS WALL!" -- President Ronald Reagan, Berlin, 1987)
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To: ImaGraftedBranch
They always have, currently are, and always will be adjusting their idea of the big picture.

And religion doesn't?

48 posted on 07/09/2004 2:18:23 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: talleyman
To the Deluxe Model?

Haha - that's funny. But seriously, with physics these days, everything is counter-intuitive. The correct answer is the Economy Model.

49 posted on 07/09/2004 2:19:16 PM PDT by searchandrecovery (Socialist America - diseased and dysfunctional.)
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To: RadioAstronomer
Do you have to wait 24 hrs before filing a missing neutron mass report?

Indeed! :-)

Then you see pictures of them on the sides of milk cartons.

Shouldn't that be "on the sides of Milky Way cartons"?

(ducking)

50 posted on 07/09/2004 2:20:05 PM PDT by talleyman (E =mc2 (before taxes))
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