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Universe's most distant galaxy discovered
Phys.Org ^ | 10-23-2013 | Provided by Texas A&M University

Posted on 10/23/2013 10:06:52 AM PDT by Red Badger

Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin may be former football rivals, but the Lone Star State's two research giants have teamed up to detect the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy ever found—one created within 700 million years after the Big Bang.

The research is published in the most recent edition of the journal Nature.

"It's exciting to know we're the first people in the world to see this," said Vithal Tilvi, a Texas A&M postdoctoral research associate and co-author of the paper, set to be available online after Oct. 24. "It raises interesting questions about the origins and the evolution of the universe."

The paper's lead author is Steven Finkelstein, an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin and 2011 Hubble Fellow who previously was a postdoctoral research associate at Texas A&M under the mentorship of Texas A&M astrophysicist Casey Papovich, who is second author as well as current mentor to Tilvi. Ten other international institutions collaborated on the effort, from California to Massachusetts and Italy to Israel.

The galaxy, known by its catalog name z8_GND_5296, fascinated the researchers. Whereas our home, the Milky Way, creates about one or two Sun-like stars every year or so, this newly discovered galaxy forms around 300 a year and was observed by the researchers as it was 13 billion years ago. That's the time it took for the galaxy's light to travel to Earth. Just how mind-boggling is that? A single light year, which is the distance light travels in a year, is nearly six trillion miles. Because the universe has been expanding the whole time, the researchers estimate the galaxy's present distance to be roughly 30 billion light years away.

"Because of its distance we get a glimpse of conditions when the universe was only about 700 million years old—only 5 percent of its current age of 13.8 billion years," said Papovich, an associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy and a member of the George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy since 2008.

Papovich notes that researchers are able to accurately gauge the distances of galaxies by measuring a feature from the ubiquitous element hydrogen called the Lyman alpha transition, which emits brightly in distant galaxies. It's detected in nearly all galaxies that are seen from a time more than one billion years from the Big Bang, but getting closer than that, the hydrogen emission line, for some reason, becomes increasingly difficult to see.

"We were thrilled to see this galaxy," Finkelstein said. "And then our next thought was, 'Why did we not see anything else? We're using the best instrument on the best telescope with the best galaxy sample. We had the best weather—it was gorgeous. And still, we only saw this emission line from one of our sample of 43 observed galaxies, when we expected to see around six. What's going on?'"

The researchers suspect they may have zeroed in on the era when the universe made its transition from an opaque state in which most of the hydrogen is neutral to a translucent state in which most of the hydrogen is ionized. So it's not necessarily that the distant galaxies aren't there. It could be that they're hidden from detection behind a wall of neutral hydrogen fog, which blocks the hydrogen emission signal.

Tilvi notes this is one of two major changes in the fundamental essence of the universe since its beginning—the other being a transition from a plasma state to a neutral state. He is leading the effort on a follow-up paper that will use a sophisticated statistical analysis to explore that transition further.

"Everything seems to have changed since then," Tilvi said. "If it was neutral everywhere today, the night sky that we see wouldn't be as beautiful. What I'm working on is studying exactly why and exactly where this happened. Was this transition sudden, or was it gradual?"

The Nature paper is the result of raw data gleaned from a powerful Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey of the distant universe called CANDELS, or Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. Using that data, the team was armed with 43 potential distant galaxies and set out to confirm their distances.

On a crisp, clear April night, Tilvi, Finkelstein and his graduate student, Mimi Song, sat behind a panel of computers in the control room of the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is perched atop the summit of Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano and houses the two largest optical and infrared telescopes in the world, each standing eight stories tall, weighing 300 tons and equipped with 10-meter-wide mirrors.

They detected only one galaxy during their two nights of observation at Keck, but it turned out to be the most distant ever confirmed. It was at a redshift 7.51—or created about 13 billion years ago. Because the universe is expanding, the space between galaxies also is increasing. And as objects move away, they become redder. In essence, the higher the redshift, the farther away the object. Only five other galaxies have ever been confirmed to have a redshift greater than 7, with the previous high being 7.215.

Finkelstein credits technological advancements in recent years for allowing astronomers to probe deeper into space and closer to the Big Bang. For instance, a powerful new spectrometer called MOSFIRE (Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration) that is 25 times more light-sensitive than others of its kind was installed at Keck in 2012. And the Hubble Space Telescope is powered by a new near-infrared camera installed by astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle in 2009 that sees farther into the universe.

Finkelstein and Papovich's collaboration to study distant galaxies and our cosmic evolution is one of several between Texas' two public research giants in the realm of astronomy. Texas A&M, the University of Texas at Austin and other institutions are building the largest spectrograph in the world to be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in west Texas to shed light on the mysterious force dark energy that likely is driving the expansion of the universe.

Perhaps the largest and most important collaboration between the two universities' astronomy programs is on the Giant Magellan Telescope, which, when complete in 2020, will create images 10 times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope and enable astronomers to see earlier into the universe than ever before. Texas A&M and the University of Texas at Austin are two of 10 international institutions that are founding partners on the project.

"The Giant Magellan Telescope will revolutionize this research," Papovich said. "We are pushing the current telescopes to their limits and only seeing the brightest galaxies at these redshifts. It is slow-going with current telescopes. The GMT will have about five times the light gathering power of the biggest telescopes we're using now, and it will make the measurements we're doing that much easier. It will probably take the GMT to really understand the conditions in the very early universe."

Nicholas Suntzeff, director of the Texas A&M astronomy program, said the University of Texas at Austin has been instrumental in helping to boost the College Station program's international profile and providing access to telescopes and facilities. Suntzeff, who this year was appointed Texas A&M's highest faculty rank, distinguished professor, himself serves as an adjunct professor at the University of Texas at Austin.

"If we want to maintain Texas as one of the most important centers in the world for astronomy, we can no longer do it as individual universities," Suntzeff said. "UT, Texas A&M and other universities must work together. Just as a strength of the University of California program is that its system is united, if we are going to be part of the biggest projects in the world, we must unite our forces. This is the only way we can rejoin the group of elite astronomical institutions that are doing the best science on the biggest telescopes. In Texas, we are on that path."


TOPICS: Astronomy; Outdoors; Religion; Science
KEYWORDS: astronomy; galaxy
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This image from the Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS survey highlights the most distant galaxy in the universe with a measured distance, dubbed z8_GND_5296. The galaxy's red color alerted astronomers that it was likely extremely far away and, thus, seen at an early time after the Big Bang. A team of astronomers including Steven Finkelstein of the University of Texas at Austin and Vithal Tilvi of Texas A&M University measured the exact distance using the Keck I telescope with the new MOSFIRE spectrograph. They found that this galaxy is seen at about 700 million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was just 5% of its current age of 13.8 billion years. Credit: V. Tilvi, Texas A&M University; S.L. Finkelstein, University of Texas at Austin; C. Papovich, Texas A&M University; CANDELS Team and Hubble Space Telescope/NASA

This is an artist's rendition of the newly discovered most distant galaxy z8_GND_5296. (The galaxy looks red in the actual Hubble Space Telescope image because the collective blue light from stars get shifted toward redder colors due to the expansion of the universe and its large distance from Earth.) Credit: V. Tilvi, S.L. Finkelstein, C. Papovich, NASA, ESA, A. Aloisi, The Hubble Heritage, HST, STScI, and AURA.

1 posted on 10/23/2013 10:06:52 AM PDT by Red Badger
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To: SunkenCiv; KevinDavis

Space ping!..........


2 posted on 10/23/2013 10:07:19 AM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

I tried to imagine how big the universe is one night waiting for sleep. I got close and had a kind of panic attack for my efforts.


3 posted on 10/23/2013 10:22:23 AM PDT by DManA
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To: Red Badger
I was a skeptic about the "big bang" theory until I read (this) by physicist Gerald Schroeder.
4 posted on 10/23/2013 10:22:31 AM PDT by yoe ( Defund Obamacare now — or risk voter backlash in 2014)
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To: Red Badger
the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy ever found ... so far.

It's so far away it's almost to the outer boundary of the neighboring universe. Think of our known universe as a bubble in soap. How many other bubbles are there?

Imagine if you could grow yourself so large that our known universe was the size of a grain of sand ... and then postulate what you might see from that viewpoint.

Then imagine how fast you could travel from one end of the universe to the other.

5 posted on 10/23/2013 10:23:12 AM PDT by clamper1797 (Evil WILL flourish when good men WILL not act)
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To: Red Badger

Until next year, or next month, when they discover a galaxy even further away.
And then another, the following year.

Etc.


6 posted on 10/23/2013 10:24:57 AM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: DManA

The only thing bigger than the Universe is the One who created it...............


7 posted on 10/23/2013 10:25:51 AM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: clamper1797

Don’t forget to exhale!


8 posted on 10/23/2013 10:26:53 AM PDT by headsonpikes (Mass murder and cannibalism are the twin sacraments of socialism - "Who-whom?"-Lenin)
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To: headsonpikes

It would have to be some really good stuff :<)


9 posted on 10/23/2013 10:27:51 AM PDT by clamper1797 (Evil WILL flourish when good men WILL not act)
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To: DManA

LOL! I’ve been there.


10 posted on 10/23/2013 10:29:19 AM PDT by rarestia (It's time to water the Tree of Liberty.)
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To: Red Badger
you can't get there from here
11 posted on 10/23/2013 10:33:57 AM PDT by BlueDragon (His kingdom is not of THIS world --- do not forget.)
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To: Red Badger

And it’s amazing how many other galaxies are visible in that one image from Hubble.


12 posted on 10/23/2013 10:36:25 AM PDT by henkster (Communists never negotiate.)
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To: Red Badger
What is interesting...even though it is only an artist's renition...is that this galaxy does not seem to have evidence of a central black hole or singularity. Hard to tell if it is a spiral type galaxy.
13 posted on 10/23/2013 10:48:24 AM PDT by Bloody Sam Roberts (So Obama "inherited" a mess? Firemen "inherit" messes too. Ever see one put gasoline on it?)
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To: yoe
I read "Genesis and the Big Bang" years ago. Fascinating.

When family discussions on Genesis/Big Bang would erupt, my father-in-law always asked the question, "How long was a day when there was no Earth? Better to substitute the phrase 'a period of time' for the word 'day' in Genesis. Then it makes much more sense."

14 posted on 10/23/2013 10:53:22 AM PDT by Bloody Sam Roberts (So Obama "inherited" a mess? Firemen "inherit" messes too. Ever see one put gasoline on it?)
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To: Red Badger
"That means that our whole solar system could be, like one tiny atom in the fingernail of some other giant being . This is too much! That means one tiny atom in my fingernail could be tiny universe!"
15 posted on 10/23/2013 10:54:49 AM PDT by Rebelbase (Tagline: (optional, printed after your name on post))
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To: Red Badger

Very interesting, but...the prevalence of G2 stars would have required heavy element burning in at least one or two earlier generations of larger stars, which would have required at least a few billion years including supernova production, element spreading and subsequent accretion. I’m a little fuzzy about how this then young galaxy could produce so many G2s.


16 posted on 10/23/2013 10:57:48 AM PDT by onedoug
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To: Red Badger

“30 billion light years away. “
I thought the Universe was only 14 billion years old.

When we look at something 13 billion light years away we are seeing it as it was 13 billion years ago. So why is it so far? I thought the universe was expanding. So why isn’t it closer?


17 posted on 10/23/2013 10:58:57 AM PDT by I want the USA back (Media: completely irresponsible traitors. Complicit in the destruction of our country.)
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To: Red Badger
Universe's most distant galaxy discovered

You forgot to add the proper qualifier to this headline: Universe's most distant galaxy discovered [until the next 'most distant' galaxy is discovered]

18 posted on 10/23/2013 10:59:36 AM PDT by Colofornian
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To: I want the USA back

Well, it went one way for 14 billion years and we went the other way...............


19 posted on 10/23/2013 11:04:29 AM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: onedoug
I’m a little fuzzy about how this then young galaxy could produce so many G2s.

Bureaucracy.........

20 posted on 10/23/2013 11:05:25 AM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: yoe

Schroeder’s “The Science Of God” is very interesting for the way it posits that via general relativity, 6 days and 15 billion years can be envisioned equivalently.

God’s grace....


21 posted on 10/23/2013 11:05:51 AM PDT by onedoug
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To: Red Badger
Well, it went one way for 14 billion years and we went the other way...............

I hate good byes but we'll have to say "adios" to that galaxy. ;-)

22 posted on 10/23/2013 11:18:05 AM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: onedoug
which would have required at least a few billion years including supernova production,

Not for big stars. A 10 solar mass star might burn brightly for only 100,000,000 years or less and then go supernova. Voila! lots of metals available in a short time.

23 posted on 10/23/2013 11:20:25 AM PDT by 17th Miss Regt
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To: TigersEye

We’ll meet again..........


24 posted on 10/23/2013 11:48:42 AM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: yoe
Agreed.

I've often wondered what it looked like when God spoke the universe into existence.

"Let there be light!"

And then, a big bang indeed!

25 posted on 10/23/2013 11:58:09 AM PDT by jonno (Having an opinion is not the same as having the answer...)
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To: Red Badger
On the dark side of the moon? lol

No, I get it, what goes around comes around.

26 posted on 10/23/2013 11:58:59 AM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: TigersEye

The Big Crunch............might take a while........


27 posted on 10/23/2013 12:03:15 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

There’s a new theory now that, due to “Dark Energy,” all of the galaxies will continue to expand away from each other until they are so far apart none will be visible to another. That’s their theory but I suspect they won’t stick to it. lol


28 posted on 10/23/2013 12:21:01 PM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: TigersEye

All the matter in the Universe will eventually come back together, no matter what....(pun intended)

Matter distorts space-time. Imagine a universe where there exists only TWO hydrogen atoms, nothing else. Even if they are a billion light years apart, they will eventually collide.................


29 posted on 10/23/2013 12:54:36 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

They will find another one that is even further out within a year... count on it....


30 posted on 10/23/2013 12:54:41 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: GraceG

That may well be. It’s a Big Universe out there......................


31 posted on 10/23/2013 12:55:30 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

I agree with you. My gut feeling is that you’re take is right and the Dark Energy theory is flawed.


32 posted on 10/23/2013 12:58:42 PM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: TigersEye

you’re = your (I know the difference)


33 posted on 10/23/2013 1:03:39 PM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: TigersEye

‘Dark Energy’ and ‘Dark Matter’ are just names the scientists give to something they do not yet understand. Not unlike a neolithic culture giving names to rain gods and sun gods....................


34 posted on 10/23/2013 1:04:01 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger
I understand that yet they are seeing something even if the understanding isn't there yet.
35 posted on 10/23/2013 1:14:17 PM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: TigersEye

It’s like ‘Gravity Waves’. They haven’t found any yet, but they are sure they exist....................


36 posted on 10/23/2013 1:15:20 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: TigersEye

In that Galaxy Spock has a beard....


37 posted on 10/23/2013 1:21:21 PM PDT by central_va (I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: central_va

... and James T. Kirk is a celibate monk.


38 posted on 10/23/2013 1:37:05 PM PDT by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: Red Badger
All the matter in the Universe will eventually come back together, no matter what....(pun intended)

Well if *Dark Energy* follows with everything else in the universe, it will eventually wind down and the *Big Crunch* will begin.
Unless gravity/Higgs field winds down also, than who knows?

Just a shot in the dark :)

39 posted on 10/23/2013 1:42:40 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: The Cajun

I propose a new name for the effects of interactions between Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Dark Entropy.............it would also be a good name for a heavy metal rock band..........


40 posted on 10/23/2013 1:50:44 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: The Cajun

I just Googled ‘Dark Entropy’
There already is a rock band by that name.............


41 posted on 10/23/2013 1:52:09 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

While fascinating, it prolly doesn’t even there anymore. :-)


42 posted on 10/23/2013 1:59:04 PM PDT by SgtHooper (If at first you don't succeed, skydiving is not for you.)
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To: Red Badger
I just Googled ‘Dark Entropy’
There already is a rock band by that name.............

Got to be a particularly nerdy group.
Kind of picture the guys from *The Big Bang Theory* :)

43 posted on 10/23/2013 2:00:53 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: SgtHooper

That would be a pretty safe bet............


44 posted on 10/23/2013 2:07:51 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: The Cajun

https://www.facebook.com/DarkEntropy


45 posted on 10/23/2013 2:08:43 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger
Kind of pictured Sheldon from The Big Bang Theory with a Stratocaster, dressed up like Angus Young from AC/DC in an English school boy uniform, LOL.

Like space, I'm warped.

46 posted on 10/23/2013 2:16:46 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: The Cajun

I’m so fat that the Sun is drawn toward me.......


47 posted on 10/23/2013 2:20:22 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger
I’m so fat that the Sun is drawn toward me.......

Do you have your own gravitational field?Are small objects, like pencils and dust, orbiting your body?

48 posted on 10/23/2013 2:22:36 PM PDT by central_va (I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: central_va

On some days...............

49 posted on 10/23/2013 2:25:52 PM PDT by Red Badger (The only way to defeat liberalism is to give them everything they want......then pick up the pieces.)
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To: Red Badger

I’ve never seen one of the green boxes in the night sky before. Cool.


50 posted on 10/23/2013 2:25:55 PM PDT by central_va (I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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