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Century-old problem: ... professor finds out what causes low-frequency electronic 1/f noise
Phys.Org ^ | 03-07-2013 | Provided by University of California - Riverside

Posted on 03/07/2013 8:42:43 AM PST by Red Badger

FULL TITLE:

Solving nearly century-old problem: Using graphene, professor finds out what causes low-frequency electronic 1/f noise

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A University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering professor and a team of researchers published a paper today that show how they solved an almost century-old problem that could further help downscale the size of electronic devices.

The work, led by Alexander A. Balandin, a professor of electrical engineering at UC Riverside, focused on the low-frequency electronic 1/f noise, also known as pink noise and flicker noise. It is a signal or process with a power spectral density inversely proportional to the frequency. It was first discovered in vacuum tubes in 1925 and since then it has been found everywhere from fluctuations of the intensity in music recordings to human heart rates and electrical currents in materials and devices. The importance of this noise for electronics motivated numerous studies of its physical origin and methods for its control. For example, the signal's phase noise in a radar or communication gadget such as smart phone is determined, to a large degree, by the 1/f noise level in the transistors used inside the radar or smart phone. However, after almost a century of investigations, the origin of 1/f noise in most of material systems remained a mystery. A question of particular importance for electronics was whether 1/f noise was generated on the surface of electrical conductors or inside their volumes. A team of researchers from the UC Riverside, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of The Russian Academy of Sciences were able to shed light on 1/f noise origin using a set of multi-layered graphene samples with the thickness continuously varied from around 15 atomic planes to a single layer of graphene. Graphene is a single-atom thick carbon crystal with unique properties, including superior electrical and heat conductivity, mechanical strength and unique optical absorption. In addition to Balandin, who is also the founding chair of the materials science and engineering program at UC Riverside, the team of researchers included: The team included: Guanxiong Liu, a research associate in Balandin's Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL); Michael S. Shur, Patricia W. and C. Sheldon Roberts Professor of Solid State Electronics at RPI; and Sergey Rumyantsev, research professor at RPI and Ioffe Institute.

"The key to this interesting result was that unlike in metal or semiconductor films, the thickness of graphene multilayers can be continuously and uniformly varied all the way down to a single atomic layer of graphene – the ultimate "surface" of the film," Balandin said. "Thus, we were able to accomplish with multilayer graphene films something that researchers could not do with metal films in the last century. We probed the origin of 1/f noise directly." He added that previous studies could not test metal films to the thicknesses below about eight nanometers. The thickness of graphene is 0.35 nanometers and can be increased gradually, one atomic plane at a time. "Apart from the fundamental science, the reported results are important for continuing the downscaling of conventional electronic devices," Balandin said. "Current technology is already at the level when many devices become essentially the surfaces. In this sense, the finding goes beyond graphene field." He also noted that the study was essential for the proposed applications of graphene in analog circuits, communications and sensors. This is because all these applications require acceptably low levels of 1/f noise, which contributes to the phase noise of communication systems and limits sensor sensitivity and selectivity. The results of the research have been published in the journal Applied Physics Letters.


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Computers/Internet; Health/Medicine; Science
KEYWORDS: electronics; graphene; radio; stringtheory; tech
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This could start a whole new revolution in electronics...............
1 posted on 03/07/2013 8:42:47 AM PST by Red Badger
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To: ShadowAce; SunkenCiv; Las Vegas Dave

Ping!.....anybody have a Ham Radio ping list?..........


2 posted on 03/07/2013 8:44:10 AM PST by Red Badger (Lincoln freed the slaves. Obama just got them ALL back......................)
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To: Red Badger

Good post...thanks!


3 posted on 03/07/2013 8:45:24 AM PST by Hotlanta Mike ("Governing a great natiorn is like cooking a small fish - too much handling will spoil it." Lao Tzu)
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To: rdb3; Calvinist_Dark_Lord; Salo; JosephW; Only1choice____Freedom; amigatec; stylin_geek; ...

4 posted on 03/07/2013 8:46:12 AM PST by ShadowAce (Linux -- The Ultimate Windows Service Pack)
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To: AdmSmith; Big Giant Head; grey_whiskers; Brandybux; dfwright; Bikkuri; Dacula; BuddaBudd; mbj; ...

5 posted on 03/07/2013 8:47:06 AM PST by ShadowAce (Linux -- The Ultimate Windows Service Pack)
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To: Red Badger
OK - nice description of how they figured out how to find where the pink's coming from - but then the article ends... So where does it come from?
6 posted on 03/07/2013 8:59:11 AM PST by GOPJ (DHS HAS secured: 1.6 BILLION bullets - 2.700 tanks and 35,000 drones ...to use on American soil...)
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To: Red Badger

Graphene has some amazing properties. UCLA recently figured out how to cheaply make graphene from graphite oxide. There very well may be a low power electronics revolution a-brewing.


7 posted on 03/07/2013 9:00:46 AM PST by RightOnTheBorder
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To: GOPJ
http://apl.aip.org/resource/1/applab/v102/i9/p093111_s1?isAuthorized=no Low-frequency noise with the spectral density S(f)∼1/fγ (f is the frequency and γ ≈ 1) is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which hampers operation of many devices and circuits. A long-standing question of particular importance for electronics is whether 1/f noise is generated on the surface of electrical conductors or inside their volumes. Using high-quality graphene multilayers, we were able to directly address this fundamental problem of the noise origin. Unlike the thickness of metal or semiconductor films, the thickness of graphene multilayers can be continuously and uniformly varied all the way down to a single atomic layer of graphene—the actual surface. We found that 1/f noise becomes dominated by the volume noise when the thickness exceeds ∼7 atomic layers (∼2.5 nm). The 1/f noise is the surface phenomenon below this thickness. The obtained results are important for continuous downscaling of conventional electronics and for the proposed graphene applications in sensors and communications.
8 posted on 03/07/2013 9:04:43 AM PST by Red Badger (Lincoln freed the slaves. Obama just got them ALL back......................)
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To: Red Badger

Graphene again. Interesting.


9 posted on 03/07/2013 9:14:49 AM PST by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: Red Badger

bookmark.


10 posted on 03/07/2013 9:19:28 AM PST by dadfly
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To: GOPJ
We found that 1/f noise becomes dominated by the volume noise when the thickness exceeds ∼7 atomic layers (∼2.5 nm). The 1/f noise is the surface phenomenon below this thickness.
11 posted on 03/07/2013 9:22:34 AM PST by Cletus.D.Yokel (*Catastrophic Anthropogenic Climate Alteration: The acronym explains the science.)
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To: Red Badger
"The 1/f noise is the surface phenomenon below this thickness"

Funny, I woke up during the night with that very idea in my head. No clue what it meant at the time.

12 posted on 03/07/2013 9:23:27 AM PST by steve86 (Acerbic by Nature, not NurtureĀ™)
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To: GOPJ
So where does it come from?


13 posted on 03/07/2013 9:23:55 AM PST by UCANSEE2 (The monsters are due on Maple Street)
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To: steve86; GOPJ; Red Badger
"The 1/f noise is the surface phenomenon below this thickness"

Isn't that like saying that the noise is the HUM of the PLANCK FLOOR ?

14 posted on 03/07/2013 9:28:49 AM PST by UCANSEE2 (The monsters are due on Maple Street)
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To: UCANSEE2

Only if you have a loose Planck in the floor.......


15 posted on 03/07/2013 9:32:09 AM PST by Red Badger (Lincoln freed the slaves. Obama just got them ALL back......................)
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To: steve86

Listen to voices in your head? Sometimes they can be very troubling..........


16 posted on 03/07/2013 9:34:31 AM PST by Red Badger (Lincoln freed the slaves. Obama just got them ALL back......................)
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To: GOPJ

They found that noise was generated above a certain distance between fields. They’ve literally narrowed down a field to a distance smaller than where the noise occurs (at least to a measurable extent), and thus, the noise is no longer an issue.

This will definitely herald an age of microelectronics to make our current iPhones and Droid devices look like the bag phones of the 80s.


17 posted on 03/07/2013 9:39:07 AM PST by rarestia (It's time to water the Tree of Liberty.)
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To: rarestia
Forget about iPhones and Droids!

The answer is in the Surface phenomenom!


18 posted on 03/07/2013 9:52:43 AM PST by Alas Babylon!
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To: Alas Babylon!

Ugh... don’t get me started on MS’s latest abysmal marketing campaign.


19 posted on 03/07/2013 10:09:27 AM PST by rarestia (It's time to water the Tree of Liberty.)
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To: GOPJ
OK - nice description of how they figured out how to find where the pink's coming from - but then the article ends... So where does it come from?

That's exactly what I was thinking.

20 posted on 03/07/2013 10:35:03 AM PST by zeugma (Those of us who work for a living are outnumbered by those who vote for a living.)
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