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Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the...
Daily Galaxy ^ | 4/15/11

Posted on 04/16/2011 5:50:42 PM PDT by LibWhacker

Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the Observable Universe? Or, Might It Be Something Else

Back in the Middle Ages, maps showed terrifying images of sea dragons at the boundaries of the known world. Today, scientists have observed strange new motion at the very limits of the known universe -- kind of where you'd expect to find new things, but they still didn't expect this. A huge swathe of galactic clusters seem to be heading to a cosmic hotspot and nobody knows why. The unexplained motion has hundreds of millions of stars dashing towards a certain part of the sky at over eight hundred kilometers per second. Not much speed in cosmic terms, but most preferred cosmological models have things moving in all directions equally at the extreme edges of the universe. Something that could make things aim for a specific spot on such a massive scale hasn't been imagined before.

"The clusters show a small but measurable velocity that is independent of the universe's expansion and does not change as distances increase," says lead researcher Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "We never expected to find anything like this."

Kashlinsky calls this collective motion a "dark flow" in the vein of more familiar cosmological mysteries: dark energy and dark matter. "The distribution of matter in the observed universe cannot account for this motion," he says, keeping to the proven astrophysical strategy of calling anything we don't understand "dark."

Hot X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster scatters photons from the cosmic microwave background. Clusters don't precisely follow the expansion of space, so the wavelengths of scattered photons change in a way that reflects each cluster's individual motion.

This results in a minute shift of the microwave background's temperature in the cluster's direction. Astronomers refer to this change as the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect.

A related distortion, known as the thermal SZ effect, has been observed in galaxy clusters since the 1980s. But the kinematic version is less than one-tenth as strong and has not been detected in any cluster.

A black hole can't explain the observations -- objects would accelerate into the hole, while the NASA scientists see constant motion over a vast expanse of a billion light-years. You have no idea how big that is. This is giant on a scale where it's not just that we can't see what's doing it, it's that the entire makeup of the universe as we understand it can't be right if this is happening.

Such discoveries force a whole new set of ideas onto the table which, even if they turn out to be wrong, are the greatest ways to advance science and our understanding of everything. One explanation that's already been offered is that our universe underwent a period of hyper-inflation early in its existence, and everything we think of as the vast and infinite universe is actually a small corner under the sofa of the real expanse of reality. Which would be an amazing, if humbling, discovery.

Now, a new study from the University at Buffalo contradicts the dark flow theory, showing that exploding stars in different parts of the universe do not appear to be moving in sync. Working with data on 557 such stars, called supernovae, UB scientists deduced that while the supernovae closest to Earth all shared a common motion in one direction, supernovae further out were heading somewhere else. An article announcing the research results will appear in a forthcoming edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

In 2008, a research team led by a NASA scientist announced a startling discovery: Clusters of galaxies far apart from one another appeared to be traveling in the same direction, contradicting as we pointed out above, the standard model of the universe -- which predicts that, as a whole, mass within our universe should flow randomly in all directions, relative to the background radiation of the cosmos.

The one-way "dark flow" that the NASA-led group discovered created a mystery. What could account for the unexpected motion? Maybe another universe existed beyond the bounds of ours, dragging our stars ever closer through the pull of gravity.

Then again, maybe not. A new study from the University at Buffalo contradicts the dark flow theory, showing that exploding stars in different parts of the universe do not appear to be moving in sync.

Working with data on 557 such stars, called supernovae, UB scientists deduced that while the supernovae closest to Earth all shared a common motion in one direction, supernovae further out were heading somewhere else. The difference in motion became pronounced for stars 680 million or more light years away from Earth.

An article announcing the research results will appear in a forthcoming edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

Though the findings disagree with the "dark flow" hypothesis, they coincide with the predictions of another model of the universe: Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, the standard model of cosmology.'

"Our result is boring, in a way, because it matches your expectation for the standard cosmological model," said UB physicist William Kinney. "If it turns out that the NASA team led by Alexander Kashlinsky is right, it would be exciting because there would be some crazy thing going on that nobody understood. There would have to be something very radical, like a big mass outside of our universe that's pulling on stuff inside our universe. That would be big news."

"But our data do not match theirs," Kinney continued. "With our study, we're muddying the water. It's not yet clear who is right. We have to do more figuring to build up a more detailed and accurate picture of the universe."

Kinney, an associate professor, completed the study on supernovae with De-Chang Dai, a UB postdoctoral researcher who has since joined the University of Cape Town, and Dejan Stojkovic, an assistant professor of physics at UB.

The supernova data the team used to complete their study came from the Union2 data set, which the Supernova Cosmology Project at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released in 2010. Though Union2 incorporates astronomical observations from different telescopes and different times, the data set controls carefully for systematic bias and serves as a useful check for the possible presence of systematic errors in the work of Kashlinsky and others, Kinney said.


TOPICS: Astronomy; Science
KEYWORDS: adjacent; dark; darkenergy; darkflow; darkforce; darkmatter; flow; speedofdark; stringtheory; universe
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Another article about dark flow... With a little more detail.
1 posted on 04/16/2011 5:50:50 PM PDT by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

Jesus is coming back and boy is He ticked.


2 posted on 04/16/2011 5:54:07 PM PDT by Linda Frances
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To: LibWhacker

We talk about “the Universe” as if we know there’s just one. The fact is that we know no such thing.

Of course it was less than 100 years ago that we believed that the milky way was the extent of our universe.


3 posted on 04/16/2011 6:01:13 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: LibWhacker
Just more evidence that the Multiverse is real and we can see it.

No, those aren't just "clusters", they are completely different universes, and we can see them only because they emit electromagnetic radiation at frequencies commonly found in our own universe.

There are gaps out there where we can't see the adjacent universes because they do not emit electromagnetic radiation at frequencies we can detect, or even care about.

We can, however, sense their gravity.

4 posted on 04/16/2011 6:02:51 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: LibWhacker
Just more evidence that the Multiverse is real and we can see it.

No, those aren't just "clusters", they are completely different universes, and we can see them only because they emit electromagnetic radiation at frequencies commonly found in our own universe.

There are gaps out there where we can't see the adjacent universes because they do not emit electromagnetic radiation at frequencies we can detect, or even care about.

We can, however, sense their gravity.

5 posted on 04/16/2011 6:03:07 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: LibWhacker

Our entire “Universe” lies within a single black hole. Clusters and Galaxies are streaming “down” this black hole, inexorably towards the singularity.


6 posted on 04/16/2011 6:07:51 PM PDT by eCSMaster (2012 - End of an error)
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To: FReepers
Is This You Too?

“I do so enjoy these money raising pleas. Too bad you kicked off so many patriots back in the day that criticizing the big spending Bush was a cardinal sin on the so called conservative free republic.

Nope, I will happily continue to freeload information from this site. If the lights go dark, well, so be it...”

Become A Monthly FR Donor

7 posted on 04/16/2011 6:10:50 PM PDT by DJ MacWoW (America! The wolves are at your door! How will you answer the knock?)
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To: LibWhacker

Why is it ‘dark’ at night?


8 posted on 04/16/2011 6:15:58 PM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: Linda Frances

nah.....Jesus sent the stars and is sending them to earth to get their “right to be treated as a human being” back just like trees and bugs that are appealing to the UN.

I like hebrew national beef dogs ‘cause they answer to a Higher Authority


9 posted on 04/16/2011 6:23:05 PM PDT by MissDairyGoodnessVT (I am keeping the faith, I have not finished my course and I am fighting for the good)
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To: Linda Frances

nah.....Jesus sent the stars and is sending them to earth to get their “right to be treated as a human being” back just like trees and bugs that are appealing to the UN.

I like hebrew national beef dogs ‘cause they answer to a Higher Authority


10 posted on 04/16/2011 6:23:18 PM PDT by MissDairyGoodnessVT (I am keeping the faith, I have not finished my course and I am fighting for the good)
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To: muawiyah

This sort of stuff makes my mind melt. Which is why I studied the other side of the spectrum in sub-atomic particles. It was friendly, and possessed the unknown, but there weren’t these things that turned your mind into applesauce.


11 posted on 04/16/2011 6:24:19 PM PDT by Ouderkirk (Democrats...the party of Slavery, Segregation, Sodomy, and Sedition)
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To: eCSMaster

Can't Fool Me! Happen to Know 'tis Turtles All the Way Down

12 posted on 04/16/2011 6:26:12 PM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: cripplecreek

If there is another universe could we see it from here? And how do we know its not just a giant mirror?


13 posted on 04/16/2011 6:26:38 PM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: MissDairyGoodnessVT

Okay that was good!


14 posted on 04/16/2011 6:28:40 PM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: Larry Lucido

We can’t even see all of our own universe. We can only see to our own light horizon. (some 14 billion light years)


15 posted on 04/16/2011 6:29:33 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: Linda Frances
Jesus is coming back and boy is He ticked.

Reminds me of the mother and daughter in LEGION.

-------------------------

When I was a little girl, my mother would remind me each night before bed, to open up my heart to God, for He was kind, merciful, and just. Things changed when my father left a few years later, leaving her to raise me and my brothers in a place on the edge of the Mojave Desert. She never talked of a kind and merciful God again. Instead she spoke of a prophecy. Of a time when all the world would be covered in darkness and the fate of mankind would be decided. One night, I finally got the courage to ask my mother why God had changed, why He was so mad at His children. "I don't know," she said, tucking the covers around me, "I guess He just got tired of all the bullshit."

16 posted on 04/16/2011 6:30:32 PM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: LibWhacker

Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the...

I hate it when the neighbors steal your stuff.


17 posted on 04/16/2011 6:33:40 PM PDT by UCANSEE2
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To: cripplecreek; Larry Lucido

We could probably see all of our universe but for the dust clouds. It’s not as large as you imagine ~ there’s plenty of other universes between ours and the edge of the observable universes 13.5 (or 13.8) billion years away.


18 posted on 04/16/2011 6:43:32 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: UCANSEE2

Now that was Great!


19 posted on 04/16/2011 7:26:00 PM PDT by MissDairyGoodnessVT (I am keeping the faith, I have not finished my course and I am fighting for the good)
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To: AdmSmith; bvw; callisto; ckilmer; dandelion; ganeshpuri89; gobucks; KevinDavis; Las Vegas Dave; ...

Thanks LibWhacker.


· List topics · post a topic · subscribe · Google ·

20 posted on 04/16/2011 7:59:19 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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